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Aalami F, Fischer M

Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models

Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction. Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view. A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps. User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.

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Full text: content.pdf (289,626 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.035804) class.processing (0.027755) class.communication (0.018300)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Aish R

Master architect: an object based architectural design and production system

Abstract: Master Architect is an object based CAD system which tightly integrates architectural modeling and drafting activities. The design elements within Master Architect have built-in architectural intelligence. The system includes a number of architectural oriented editing commands. The design elements are 'objects' which dynamically respond to these commands. This enables the architectural user to construct and dynamically edit a complex and realistic building model. Introduction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,157,432 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.026112) class.synthesis (0.025424) class.analysis (0.019438)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Aygun M, Cetiner I, Gocer C

A product model for the generation and evaluation of building element alternatives

Abstract: Thus a comprehensive yet versatile representation of all the entities involved in the building system is required, may these be notional or physical entities. The intention here is to provide a parametric conceptual model for generating and evaluating alternatives of functional building elements for ascertaining the best overall performer. The proposal enshrines three interrelated subsystems. The first two are concerned with constraints and performance requirements respectively as notional entities and the third with physical objects related to buildings. The discrete performance requirements for a descendant are interpreted as functions of ancestors in the context of the physical model. Hence element requirements are designated to discrete components as their functions. Each component contained within an element serves one or more primary functions. Conversely each of the latter is served by one or more components.

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Full text: content.pdf (179,189 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.013328) class.represent (0.009876)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Bakkeren W J C

Integrating structural design and analysis through product modelling

Abstract: Application of information technology in the realisation of concurrent engineering is essential (although not sufficient by itself. A research issue in the realisation of computer supported concurrent engineering is the sharing of information between computer applications. This sharing can be achieved with product models . In the structural engineering process, two kinds of information sharing can be distinguished: the sharing with other disciplines and the sharing within the discipline (between structural design and analysis). These two kinds of sharing require two kinds of product models: a model to integrate disciplines (a kernel model) and a model to integrate activities within the discipline (a discipline view model). This paper describes a kernel model for the integration of disciplines in the building process and a view model for the integration of the activities in the structural engineering process.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,752,925 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.034075) class.represent (0.011743) class.processing (0.005529)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Bellot I, Barrobeacute C, Isamat A, Belinchoacute M P, Martinez A

Integration of knowledge and data: Results of the BECOC prototype

Abstract: The BECOC prototype - "Banc Estructurat de Coneixements sobre Elements Constructius" (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) - is the first practical step to have been taken in the research project of the SITEC model. It is an example of a system designed to provide assistance in the control of standards in the project process of building design. More specifically, it controls the acoustic, thermal and gravitational standards, and is centered on the design of a building's shell. This prototype has represented a considerable advancement in the research on integrated modular systems and on knowledge representation systems in applying Artificial Intelligence techniques.

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Full text: content.pdf (973,096 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036899) class.analysis (0.020992) class.impact (0.016723)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Chen S E, Mcgeorge W D, Ostwald M J

The role of information management in the development of a strategic model of buildability

Abstract: The key to the successful irnpiernentation of buildability lies with the effective management of information through all stages of the project life cycle and across functional divisions. The majority of building design errors occur not because of the lack of information, but the lack of management of infortnation. Buildability requires information affecting the quality of project decision making tO be timely, relevant and effectively communicated to the decision makers.A strategic management model of buildability has been developed based on the working definition that buildability is "the extent to which decision made during the whole building procurement process, ultimately,facilitate the ease of construction and the quality of the completed project'! This strategic model is underpinned by the conviction that information technology offers the means to overcome the space and time communication problems which have beset previous attempts to introduce effective buildability programmes. The capacity to process and manage large quantities of data is seen as an essential attribute of buildability. The approach adopted is that of a holistic view of Factors which we likely to impact on not only the design and construction process, but of the total procurement process. This allows the boundaries of' the buildability management model to be adjusted to be appropriate to specific project coridirions. This paper will describe an information management framework which will support the implementation of the buildibility management model.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,093,797 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.038745) class.strategies (0.027726) class.environment (0.026819)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Chen S E, McGeorge W D

A life-cycle decision-information model accommodating complexity in project processes

Abstract: Fragmentation and barriers to information flows between project participants has been a major obstacle to productivity quality in the construction industry. Strategies to overcome this needs to contend with the interaction between numerous project participants which generates considerable complexity in project dynamics. A “soft” technology approach has been advocated to managing the coordination and communication of project participants. A dynamic framework to provide integrated decision support to project participants has been previously described. As an extension to the development of this framework, this paper describes a conceptual approach which perceives a project as an integrated collection of decisions. The project development process .is modelled as a dynamic decision-information flow system operating across the project’s life cycle. The recognition of individual decisions as system components allows information sharing in a near red-time context, which would facilitate an integrated project process. Feedback processes in the model provide a framework for accommodating complexity in the project process.

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Full text: content.pdf (794,238 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.066513) class.man-software (0.015397) class.communication (0.011923)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Chen Y Z, Maver T W

Supporting interaction within virtual studios

Abstract: In this paper the author describes the development of a virtual studio environment, which is intended for supporting communications for both dispersed human designers and distributed CAD applications. By applying the metaphor of the real world design studio, a virtual studio model has been defined as an electronic locale in the computer networks, which contains distributed resources and is inhabited by dispersed designers. Virtual studio environment (VSE) has then been proposed to refer to such a multi-user environment which supports the creation, operation and management of virtual studios. A distributed implementation architecture, which loosely couples the domain resources with the VSE base system through resource agents, has been designed. Conceptual building design has been chosen as the application domain for prototyping. Several typical scenarios of interaction with VSE will be discussed. One of the prominent features of this system is that the supported interaction takes place within, instead of through or external to, the design systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (131,564 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.033732) class.environment (0.020579) class.communication (0.018678)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Christiansson P

Properties of the virtual building

Abstract: The paper discusses properties of future digital Virtual Buildings from the client, design, construction and operation and maintenance perspectives. In this context the author defines a Virtual Building as "a formalized digital description of an existing or planned building which can be used to fully simulate and communicate the behavior of the real building in its expected contexts".The paper focuses on: (1) requirements formulations of future Virtual Building models, (2) the necessity and possibilities to build redundant, overlapping descriptions of buildings and (3) why and how formal temporal building process properties may be included in the descriptions. The author believes that it is not possible or desirable to create a single non-redundant model to represent a building from concept to demolition. In this discussion an account is also taken of the influences of meta level information models, dependencies between multimedia presentation and application model views, the introduction of platformindependent Internet-based solutions, and the IT-support tools in future intelligent and responsive buildings.

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Full text: content.pdf (312,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.025760) class.communication (0.024143) class.roadmaps (0.018838)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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