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Cornick T, Noble B, Hallahan C

The Limitations of current Working practices on the development of Computer Integrated Modelling in Construction

Abstract: For the Construction Industry to improve its processes through the application computer-based systems, traditional working practices must first change to support the integrated control of design and construction. Current manual methods of practice accept the limitations of man to process a wide range of building performance and production information simultaneously. However when these limitations are removed, through the applications of computer systems, the constraints of manual methods need no longer apply. The first generation of computer applications to the Construction Industry merely model ed the divided and sequential processes of manual methods i.e drafting, specification writing, engineering and quantity calculations, estimating, billing, material ordering data-bases and activity planning. Use of these systems raises expectations that connections within the computer between the processes model led can actually be made and faster and more integrated information processing be achieved. "Linking" software is then developed. The end result of this approach was that users were able to produce. information faster, present it in an impressive manner but, in reality, no perceived improvement in actual building performance, production economy or efficiency was realised. A current government sponsored Teaching Company Programme with a UK design and build company is addressing the problem of how real economic benefit can be realised through improvement in, amongst other things, their existing computer applications. This work is being carried out by both considering an academic conceptual model of how "designing for production" can be achieved in computer applications and what is immediately realisable in practice by modeling the integration of a limited number of knowledge domains to which computers are already being app1ied.i.e. billing from design, estimating and buying. This paper describes each area of work and how they are impacting on each other.

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Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.051898) class.impact (0.047946) class.environment (0.045258)
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Dado E, Tolman F P

Next generation integrated on-site applications for the construction industry

Abstract: "This paper presents the implementation and some early results of an integrated system for different site applications like space planning, site layout and work simulation. This integrated system is based on a proposed information model for on-site construction [1]. In [2] we presented an overview of the state of the art of computer usage and application integration for on-site activity support in the Construction Industry. The main conclusion was that only occasionally company and vendor specific solutions are being used and that these solutions only provide integration for one or maybe two specific application area(s). In most cases on-site application integration is not available. In [1] we also looked into the current state of the art of ICT usage in Product Data Technology. We then observed that most approaches were limited to a static modelling approach based on file transfer. From our perception of the industry's needs it seems clear that a dynamic modelling approach is needed. The dynamic model described in [1] has been implemented using state of the art ICT and is now applied in the development of a small number of integrated applications. The paper will explain the advantages of the approach and show some early results. [1] Dado, E. and Tolman, F.P.: 'Proposal for an Integrated Information Model for Concurrent Engineering of On-Site Construction', Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Concurrent Engineering in Construction, 1999, Finland. [2] Dado, E. and Tolman, F.P.: 'State of the Art of Construction Site Application Integration"", Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Product and Process Modelling in the Construction Industry, 1998, England."

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Full text: content.pdf (358,174 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.027353) class.represent (0.020009) class.bestPractise (0.019145)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Debras P, Rezgui Y

Software systems for the integration of documentary engineering within a construction project

Abstract: Numerous documents of diverse nature are involved in the construction process. Some of them such as building codes, examples of technical solutions, computation rules, define the legal context of a project. Others like technical specification documents or bills of quantities are generated by the engineering activities and often have a contractual importance. Quality of the laters may be measured by their coherency with the regulation, with the documents previously approved, but also by their coherency with the construction project itself through the absence of errors, omissions or redundancies. Once elaborated, these documents should also prove ability to be used by various actors with specific needs or requests. We describe here our approach to manage the production of these documents in tight connection with the engineering entities describing a construction project. Such a connection is based on a conceptual model of the project through its various systems and entities as proposed within the STEP framework. Such a connection relies also on a formal representation of the documents, practically SGML Document Type Definitions, and on a set of document templates linked to the construction project model and from which the project documents will be derived :from a global set of documentary items, we will only retain the relevant sections towards a given project. Then we present a software platform we develop to operate such an approach. This platform encompasses various modules taking in charge the elaboration of project data models according to the Express-G methodology, supporting the production of SGML DTDs and associated documents templates, providing some frames and facilities to link the project model and the document templates.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,572,450 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.045495) class.store (0.018764) class.synthesis (0.017579)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Diederiks H J, Van Staveren R J

Dynamic information system for modeling processes

Abstract: DINAMO is a dynamic Information System for Modeling of Design Processes. It is intended for use along with product models, data management systems and existing applications. In DINAMO a programming user can define processes. These processes are represented by graphs. The graphs are characterized by nodes and relations between nodes. Each node in a graph represents a task, and each relation can be restricted to conditions. So the way in which a process is actually been performed, that is the actual path to be evaluated through the graph, can depend on certain conditions. Processes and functions (= software modules) are available to the user as tasks. A consuming user can activate tasks; the DINAMO system regulates the dispatch of the tasks, conform the process and function definitions. Tasks are collected on sheets; sheets are collected in a task box. A task box can be regarded as a certain environment, determined by the programming user. A consuming user can choose between the environments which are available at that moment. With the DINAMO system software and process definitions can be re-used in a simple way.

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Full text: content.pdf (808,223 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.035610) class.legal (0.023916) class.environment (0.015902)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Earl M

A design automation paradox

Abstract: There seems to be a 'tyranny' of predefined purpose in some highly automated CAD products. For example, a CAD product for architects may provide 'high level" commands for trimming 'walls'. However, unless the 'wall' types conform to a particular topology, they can not be trimmed. On the other hand , there are 'low level' commands which can be used to trim more general types of graphic entities. However, unless the graphic entities are tediously decomposed into primitive elements, such as line segments and arcs, they also can not be trimmed. A paradox of design automation is that adding higher level functionality to a CAD product bounds its use within a specific design modeling domain and restricts its use from other more general domains. On the other hand, more general CAD products are flexible at a primitive level, but can not be used to provide 'high level' functionality. Although design specific knowledge within a CAD product may prove to be a great utility in some instances, it is typically paid for in terms of pre-conceived constraints on modeling. Artificial Intelligence techniques may provide a way of offering high level functionality with less pre-conceived constraints; however, it may be fallacious to assume that o particular modeling domain will not be Imposed on the user. This paper illustrates how a modeling domain is typically defined with a commercial CAD product . It takes notice of how the assumptions underlying any particular modeling domain may be challenged by design theory. It then cautiously explores a scenario for how the need for a modeling domain may be reconciled in a "thousand flowers bloom" approach.

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Full text: content.pdf (3,047,902 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.021123) class.analysis (0.008794) class.man-software (0.003701)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Earl M

Conceptual modeling through a conceptual structure

Abstract: This paper reports on a computer aided design system which I have developed to handle problems of ambiguity in the description of architectural objects during the schematic design phase. The knowledge base underlying this system is referred to as a "conceptual structure'', Within the "conceptual structure", an ambiguous "child" object may inherit attributes from many alternative kinds of "parent" objects. The "conceptual structure'' can also accommodate a design process through which a "child" object such as a "wall" can become less ambiguous over time. The end of this design process is the "disambiguated" specification of the final designed object. This system was first developed as part of my Ph.D. Dissertation at Harvard University (Mark 1993).

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Full text: content.pdf (2,348,456 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.033789) class.software development (0.008893) class.analysis (0.008488)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Ekholm A, Fridqvist S

Ob ject-oriented caad' - design object structure, and models for buildings, user organisation and site

Abstract: In the early stages of the building design process not only building and site but also user activities and experiences are fonned. In this project conceptual models of some fundamental characteristics of building, site and user organisation will be developed and implemented in a prototype CAD-programme. The programming work for the prototypes is done with Smalltalk on Macintosh computers. The tests of the prototype includes spatial coordination of the three systems. The models are based on an ontological framework which is also used for organising the basic object structure of the prototype CAD program. In the design process, information about the design object is gradually developed. Starthg from certain desired properties, the whole and its parts are fonned by successive increase of detail. The project investigates how the data structure of the design object can be formed to serve this working method. The project also discusses possible future developments. One important question is how these models maybe used in the development of the brief and in the building management stage.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,439,701 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.034496) class.analysis (0.018928) class.represent (0.014989)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Erbug C

An ergonomics model for product design

Abstract: This paper models the integration of ergonomics knowledge to the design process. It is suggested that, neither a single methodology, nor an information system will be sufficient to cover all the requirements of an ergonomic product. The relative emphasis given to ergonomics varies with the types of design problem. Nonetheless, it is assumed that the design process will always involve the user, thus ergonomics. The difficulties arise from ill-defined nature of design, inadequate knowledge background or inadequate data which requires a long-tern approach where everything should be thought at macro level. For this purpose, the aim of the paper is to propose a communication model for ergonomists and designers who believe in the value of experts. Therefore, this model presents a macro outlook onto ergonomics and product design, whereas further studies may extend the scope by presenting sub-models for reaching details in the design process or existing micro models (expert or aiding systems) will be valuable sources if they are inserted into this system. "he research is focused on literature search, accident analysis and design strategy analysis. The chief questions to be addressed in the literature search are: - What is the relation between design and ergonomics? - What is designer's responsibility in terms of design, manufacturing and products liability? - What kind of ergonomics information do designers need? How reliable are they? . - What is meant by product-user interaction? The chief questions to be addressed in accident analysis are: - What kind of information does accident analysis provide? - What is the reliability of accident data?. - How is this information used in design? The chief questions to be addressed in design strategy analysis are: - What is a model and what type of models exist in design? - What is design management? - What is a product life-cycle? reputation? . - What are the benefits of product safety in terms of company's reputation?

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Full text: content.pdf (1,072,735 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026991) class.synthesis (0.025631) class.social (0.018099)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Finch E F, Flanagan R, Marsh1 L E

Electronic document management in construction using auto id

Abstract: The construction process relies upon the effective management of a variety of project information including drawings; specifications; bills of quantities; and other technical data. The method of information transfer determines the ease with which information can be assimilated and used into the construction process. Despite the widespread use of computers for the generation of project information, hard copy documentation remains the primary method of information transfer withn the construction industry. Electronic Document Management (EDM) systems offer a'level of control over information flow within the construction process, whether documents are in hard copy or in electronic format. However, many of the existing methods of information transfer undermine the performance of EDM systems in two respects; (1) they require the user to re-enter information to register incoming documents into a data base; (2) they cannot interpret and manipulate information contained in or supporting the document. Ths paper describes a method of bar coding hard copy drawings in order to electronically transfer document information from designer to contractor. This approach is designed to improve the functionality of EDM system where hard copy documents predominate. The paper also considers the requirements for bar code application standards which would further improve the data exchange process concerning documents.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,255,849 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.044653) class.store (0.039576) class.education (0.029936)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Fischer M, Aalami F

Model-B ased constructibility analysis: the moca system

Abstract: The recent years have seen the development of several knowledge-based scheduling systems that facilitate the integration of design information with the generation of construction schedules. They have demonstrated a remarkable progress over manual planning systems. For example, these systems are able to generate a set of activities from a project description and to reason about support and enclosure information to determine the sequencing of activities. In a research project sponsored by the Center of Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE) at Stanford University, we extended the idea behind these planning and scheduling systems by adding detailed models of construction methods. Such knowledge is needed in model-based form to enhance the practicality of the schedules that are generated, and to overcome some of the limitations of heuristic systems. While the use of product models to represent design information has been well documented over the last few years, the formalization and implementation of detailed models of construction methods still represents a major challenge and opportunity. When interacting with a product model, such construction method models are able to generate construction schedules and cost estimates almost instantaneously. This will enable project participants to explore more alternatives to a greater level of detail in less time. This will lead to projects that are more constructible than some of today's projects. This in turn will lead to a reduced total delivery time and cost for constructed facilities. This paper describes the current status of the MOCA (Model-based Constructibility Analysis) system which uses formalized construction method models to automate the generation of schedules based on product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,222,940 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.012332) class.economic (0.009112) class.analysis (0.007609)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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