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Howard R W

Reverse propagation of data for building management

Abstract: Lifetime data for the management of buildings is becoming more feasible and is now expected by more facilities managers. It should be possible to extract the data related to the building fabric and systems from that generated during design and construction. For this to be just what the users require and in the form they require it, depends upon their involvement at an early stage of a project. Reverse propagation can then enable their wishes to influence the data collected so that redundant data is not produced and does not cause confusion. New forms of procurement such as partnering, allow this early involvement; alternatively there must be standards to define the general form of management data. In Denmark the CIS-CAD system defines a simple format being tested on a series of projects. It extracts information needed for statutory authorities and management, and examples are given based on continuing experience of its use. The principles of reverse propagation are discussed and the trend in databases to allow input from both ends of the process. This will eventually allow a more precise and economic definition of the building model and core data needed for management.

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Full text: content.pdf (108,012 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.014458) class.represent (0.010812) class.store (0.010747)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Huhnt W, Kluge M, Laufer H

Mapping technical processes into standard software for business support

Abstract: "Integrated software systems have been implemented in the last years to support business activities in companies including enterprise resource planing. These systems are characterized by the possibility to be customized with respect to the specific processes which already take place in companies. The use of these systems is not restricted to a specific industrial sector. It is of common use to support business activities of construction companies by these systems. Construction companies are characterized by extensive and complex processes which take place in technical divisions. These technical processes are executed for specific projects. To support the technical processes by an information system, two major problems have to be solved. The first problem is concerned with the interaction of the processes which take place in the projects and the processes which are independent of project work. The second problem is concerned with the interaction of technical processes and processes for the business activity. Existing software systems support project work. Therefore, these systems have to be expanded with respect to the technical processes. The paper presents a concept to expand existing software systems in such a way that technical processes are supported as a part of the project work in the context of a company. The technical processes are specified on the base of the set theory. The processes which are supported by the existing system are specified in the same manner. Both specifications are unified. On the basis of this unification, the interaction of the different processes is illustrated. In addition, the specifications are used for the implementation. The specifications of information are used to generate a schema for a data base and to expand the existing schema. The specifications of the tasks are used to identify algorithms which have to be implemented. Results are presented. Technical processes are shown which take place as a part of facility management. The interaction between these technical processes and existing processes is illustrated. On the basis of the existing system Navision financials, the support of technical processes is shown."

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Full text: content.pdf (289,195 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.025819) class.commerce (0.023190) class.strategies (0.014065)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Jaggar D M

Expert system technology in construction management

Abstract: This paper describes the development of a micro computer aid driven by a suite of programs which allow the design identified solution for a given building project to be transposed into information reflecting the construction solution. The 'modus operandi' of the computer aid is the use of an Expert System which can access and manipulate data contained in a data base and to submit back to a data base, for subsequent user retrieval, information about the particular building project under consideration at various stages during its realization. The system is initiated by the creation of a design situation model which is held in a relational data base in the form of information concerning the descriptions and quantities of the finished work required to achieve the building project. The Expert System, through the logic contained in the inference engine, organises the design stated situation model describing the construction solution in terms of construction activities, the resources needed and their cost implications. Thus the system is intended to provide an interface between the product related design solution and the process related construction solution and has the aim of aiding the following: 1. Resource and financial management by design team 2. Resource and financial management by the construction team

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Full text: content.pdf (2,480,147 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.058494) class.analysis (0.032486) class.man-software (0.018331)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Jeng T S, Eastman C M

Process management in a data integrated design environment

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to supporting cooperative design processes in a data integrated design environment. We address the modeling of CAD- based design activities in a manner that captures domain specific knowledge, maintains consistency m process flows, and coordinates design tasks. Given this perspective, we propose a design framework by which global objectives can be tracked and managed, partial design results and isolated automation tools can be integrated, processes can be identified immediately and re-executed as needed corresponding to signals of inconsistencies in design data or with goals.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,359,430 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.034801) class.environment (0.034714) class.impact (0.018488)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Junge R, Ammermann E, Liebich T

Product model: a basis for next generation CAAD

Abstract: Even at the very beginning of the use of computers in architecture there had already been the vision to use the new medium for more than just copying the draught man's way of work [l]. Thus, the search for such a computer assisted or even computer automated de- sign process, either for the more artistic or for the more constructive part of the architectural design process, has lasted as long as the history of CAD in architecture itself This search follows different concepts, which are, with more or less intenseness, AI approaches. The more artistic and creative aspects are to be solved by, e.g., Shape Grammar or Case Based Reasoning, the more constructive aspects by Expert Systems. These are approaches on a very high and demanding level. It is still not clear, how far the progress will lead to usability in practice. A more pragmatic but surely arduous approach is to built next generation CAAD system on the basis of a product model. The product model, however, will be a sound foundation for using case based or expert system approaches in a further step of the development. The Next CAAD project follows this approach. The model defines and describes the architectural design objects, their relations, dependencies and constraints. This will be done in a stepwise manner. A stepwise approach is also followed for the handling of dependencies and constraints. In a first phase the user will have to set the rules. In next phases small rule based modules will be taken over as far as they are proved useful.

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Full text: content.pdf (725,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.039372) class.analysis (0.033708) class.represent (0.021597)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kangari R, Sadri S

Building construction primary task models

Abstract: This paper provides a foundation for developing an integrated conceptual data model for managing information during the life cycle of a building. The Soft System Methodology (SSM) was used to develop Issue Based (IB) and Building Construction Primary Task (BCPT) models. The IB model was found to be an effective system for presenting a conceptual organization and the interrelationships among the different subsystems of the organization. The BCPT model provides a practical framework for building construction process analysis. It defines the minimum and necessary tasks required to support the subsystems of the IB model. These two models have formed a foundation for development of a conceptual data model for information integration utilizing the IDEF1x technique.

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Full text: content.pdf (55,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.013561) class.retrieve (0.001557)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Karhu V

Formal languages for construction process modelling

Abstract: "Numerous modelling methods and languages have been developed for describing different aspects of industrial and other processes. Each method, for instance the widely used scheduling method as used in project planning software, has a specific scope (i.e. the modelling of the sequence in time of interdependent activities) for which it has been designed and for which it is well suited. Used outside this scope the method may prove quite inadequate. A number of such methods have either been used or proposed for the modelling of construction processes. In order to create the basis for a next generation of more general purpose process modelling tools an analysis has been made of six such methods. In order to illustrate the concepts and graphical notation of each method a simple example of making the foundation of a summerhouse with a sauna is used. Additionally the concepts of each method have been modelled using a uniform methodology, the EXPRESS information modelling language. Based on the analysis a synthesis method, called IDEF++ is proposed and defined in EXPRESS. The method is defined on the semantic level, as its main purpose would be to enable the storing of process descriptions in a database format, enabling multiple user views to the same information. A prototype application is developed to demonstrate different views."

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Full text: content.pdf (282,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.007764) class.software development (0.007478) class.social (0.006617)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Karroum M, Sauce G, Achard G

A KBS for the integration of acoustical aspects to building design activities

Abstract: In the submitted paper, a KBS for supporting the acoustical design of buildings is described. The main objective of this system is to allow the integration of the acoustical aspects in the building design activities, with a special emphasis on the necessity to consider the acoustical aspects during the early design stages, (i. e. Massing and Sketching), In fact, building design can be considered as a regulative, integrative process which can be divided into several stages. However, four design stages are commonly identified. Massing Design Stage, Sketching Design Stage, Preliminary Design Stage and Detailed Design Stage. In order to carry out the system, a set of tools should be proposed. These tools must allow the user (designer) to perform the different tasks related to acoustical design of a building in relation to i- the design stage and -ii the other areas which could be considered from an acoustical point of view as design constraints. In addition, they must enable use of the different strategies used in the design activities i. e. refinement prototypes and generation prototypes. Augmented Transition Networks are proposed to represent the acousstical design process, with this representation being based on the use of arcs and nodes. On finally the architecture of system is proposed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,387,335 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.021995) class.social (0.012062) class.software development (0.010619)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kenji Ito

An object-oriented pproject model approach for integrated information system in A/WC industry

Abstract: As clients' requests are becoming more diverse and extensive than ever, it is necessary to concentrate compony whole efforts and to fortify cooperation among different divisions in the A/E/C industry. In the past development of information systems, was basic focused on increasing efficency of particular domain tasks, and was not enough to respond current problems. Therefore, a new method of developing collaborative and integrated informaton systems is required to synthesize resources in order to achieve total efficiency. However, it is difficult to generate, share and maintain project data during the various phases of the A/E/C project life cycle from planning to design, construction and management of the facility. The project data needs to be stored, retrieved, manipulated, and updated by many project participants, each with his/her own view of the information. In order to realize the model description of an A/E/Cproject, such a project model should support both product-based description and process-based description. Therefore the author has been proposed an object- oriented project model (called PMAPM) supporting the multiple views that are required by various participants in A/E/C pojects, which is very important for integration of the A/E/C industry. The scope of this research is to establish an object-oriented project model supporting multiple views shared by various A/E/C project participants and provide several type of sub-product model for by computer-based systems using multiple views. The objective is the eventual development of an integrated system which includes activities from project planning through design, estimation, construction and facility management. The object-oriented project model is intended to link CAD systems, relational databases, knowledge-based expert systems and other conventional software. This paper describes the development, present status and future directions for PMAPM, an object-oriented project model designed to facilitate infonnation sharing along the paths through which workflows between project stages or specialists.

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Full text: content.pdf (280,489 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.029631) class.software development (0.026600) class.communication (0.020650)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kohler N

Modelisation of a building during its life cycle

Abstract: The appreciation of the performance and the costs of a building should be carried out over the whole life time. The usual life cycle cost approach has to be extended to the external costs. Different models of the building-energy- environment system are proposed. The building description is based on a basic physical process model which is linked to the construction operations and cost elements used by quantity surveyors. The necessities for new data structures allowing different views of the data are discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,302,167 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.049337) class.economic (0.024821) class.represent (0.020455)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


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