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Price C

Selected features of object-oriented database technologies for static-typed building product model development

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology comprising a selection of established and new object-oriented database technologies. This methodology is presented in the context of the development of static-typed class libraries for Building Product Model (BPM) development and delivery. Having established the environment in which to develop BPMs, some important issues are discussed: the importance of correct object identification in terns of the possibilities for concurrent and distributed computing; how inter-object relationships can be safely and efficiently implemented and finally, the ways that object databases or persistency mechanisms relate to the application portability and the operating system.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,837,350 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.039902) class.environment (0.011102) class.store (0.011013)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Rischmoller L, Fischer M, Fox R, Alarcon L

Impact of computer advanced visualization tools in AEC industry

Abstract: "This paper presents the results of research about the impact of Computer Advanced Visualization Tools (CAVT) in the AEC project development process, carried out during PhD studies of the first author. CAVT are identified as core IT tools and defined in a broad sense, which involve their main feature of provide the ability to visualize the ends (Product models) and means (Process models) for AEC design and construction project development processes, focused in design and construction stages at the operational level. The impact of CAVT include three main dimensions: 1. The first related with the computational “science” aspect, explores how available comercial hardware and software has reached an adequate level of powerful, affordability and ease of use which will allow for a masive application of these tools in the AEC industry in the nearly future. Future demands in hardware and specially software developments are identified, and ways of lead them to the computer (software) industry are also presented. 2. The second dimension of the impact explores how the evolution of Product and Process modeling has played a key role to support with knowledge for the practical application of commercial CAVT and how these two topics must be revisited when studied from a point of view, coming from CAVT widely application to a real life project. 3. The third dimension is related with the actual organizatonal structures supporting design and construction processes development. Here is first demonstrated that actual organizational structures constitute an obstacle for CAVT efficient application, and a completely new organizational structure is needed is order to realize the real impact and take truly advantage of CAVT. An hipotetical organizational structure with high levels of integration and coordination, is then outlined, which need to be tested with further research in real life projects application. The research has an important therotetical background coming from analysis, study and contact with experts in ITC. This theoretical background has however been complemented with the study of CAVT application to a real life project, which has provided with decisive insights. The project has been designed, by first time in Latin America, completely in 3D using PDS software, a powerful Plant Design System provided by Intergraph, Inc. DesignReview software (also from Intergraph) has provided with powerful capabilties for the visualization of the product PDS 3D model. 4D modeling technology has been applied succesfully to the planning and scheduling tasks of the project to simulate the construction process, and has also provided with some important issues about how to improve the design. The study of the impact of CAVT shows that the ability to visualize the digital reality made up of a product model, and that visualization of the construction process (i.e 4D model), stands for a large reduction of the efforts in simplifications and abstractions, which traditionally has formed part of the basic input-transformation-output model for the AEC project development process. Location of the digital reality out of the boudaries of simplifications and abstractions leads to the conclusion that AEC industry is facing and ontological change without precedents in its history driven by CAVT within the ITC context. This paper will describe a bit more in detail this ontologyc change wich is about to revolution completely the way AEC projects has been developed until now."

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Full text: content.pdf (249,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.054473) class.environment (0.053118) class.processing (0.045755)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Sanne L, Keijer U

Information transfer in the structural steel construction process

Abstract: The prerequisites for the information transfer in a fragmented building process and, in particular, the structural steel construction process is discussed. The importance of deep understanding of the real construction process prior to the development of the information transfer systems for the construction process is emphasised. Monitored seminars, utilising so called group dynamic modelling technique, have been carried out in order to increase the understanding of what information is managed and transferred in real construction processes a d why the process functions as it does, today. A tentative formal information transfer model is proposed, based on a basic information transfer model, the triple role concept, and the theory of axiomatic design.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,074,637 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.068337) class.education (0.045814) class.communication (0.008992)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Schevers H, Tolman F

Creating a virtual project environment for the first building life cycle stages with cost and value evaluations

Abstract: The paper discusses the early results of Virtual Project Environment [VPE] implementation that uses Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The VPE is a computer environment that provides actors with the ability to simulate the project in the early design process. The system gives actors the opportunity to create and evaluate a number of alternative solutions. In the current implementation, the system is filled with project templates and knowledge about office buildings. Functional requirements, resources like i.e. available money, location and design solutions can be put as project data in the system. By applying knowledge rules, case rules and default values, the system will supplement this project information and generate a more detailed alternative. This means that KT is used to detail the requirements and solutions. This process assures the availability of just enough project and product information to conduct performance evaluations. These evaluations can be feasibility studies on relevant aspects like energy consumption, durability and costs. These studies give actors in this early phase a better view on the project. Working with such a system, actors can put in their design decisions and see what kind of result it has on the total project. For example the client as actor can change his demands. The VPE uses KT to adjust the design automatically. The actor can directly see what the consequences are of his change. The basis for the VPE is a product model. Modeling the early phases means among others, that the product model must capture many different levels of detail. For Example when a client wants to have new office accommodation, initial requirements can be the amount of people it has to house. KT can be used to estimate the total size of the accommodation. Having an initial idea of the shape estimation can be made of the size. In a later project phase the needed space is requirement more explicitly. The design is at that phase also more detailed. In the early design, a building must be modeled using non-detailed information. In the early design, these rough descriptions are worked out to more detailed descriptions. The product model, supporting this process, must also support the detailing process. This means different levels of detail must be supported for every product model object. For example, in the beginning of the process, a building will be described using only a primitive shape (box, cylinder, etc) and some initial properties (amount of storeys, main function, etc). Later in the process the building will be modeled with more detail. The shape is refined, the interior of the building is more detailed, etc (see figure 1). The paper discusses how this project data can be captured with PDT. Furthermore the paper discusses how this product model can interact with knowledge.

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Full text: content.pdf (245,354 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.022512) class.social (0.018639) class.represent (0.013888)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Tapio Majahalme

About models in facility management

Abstract: The facility management deals with integrated information handling of buildings, spaces, environment and any actions in business. The increasing amount of information and effectiveness requirements force us to improve preparedness in the technical and practical sense. Also continuously changing circumstances will require the information technology to face definitely new challenges. In this study the major attention has been paid to the fundamentals of facility management from the information technology point of view. All action in this brunch should be based on business idea(s) and business strategy. The main business idea can be divided into sub fields and their strategies. Well managed companies should have a facility management strategy. While considering facility management, strategies of information technology have to be taken into account. The other needed viewpoint rises from mapping or connection to real life in an easy comprehensive form. The approach used here is GIS based. All information is based on spaces and geography. The aim of this study is to develop models for computerization of facility management. The models include the activity model and the concept model, the latter of which is designed to be carried out lateler. The activity model describes the actions, processes and tasks which are carried out by the facility manager and the concept model proposes the hierarchical structure for classification of information. The models are designed to be commonly applicable in the field of facility management without being case dependent. The activity model deals with tasks such as itemizing facilities, defining their current status, devising of a solution for facility management and applying that solution in practice. The model also aims at representation of data flows for activities. Practice has indicated the importance of care in the classification of data. The enormous amount of information may cause high maintenance expenses and will lead to trouble if the basic concept is not well controlled.The activity model is presented using the SADT-technique. The concept model which is not yet available will introduce the classification of a building information system from the perspective of facility management. The building information system includes space system, technical system and environmental system which are classified in more details. The EXPRESS-G technique will be used in this representation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,720,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.028207) class.commerce (0.021026) class.represent (0.012323)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Tarandi V

Conceptual modeling of buildings

Abstract: The MCAD project stands for "Material take off CAD". Four companies are participating in the project. ABV, SIAB and SKANSKA represent more than half of the Swedish contractors turn over, and ARCONA is a new Construction Management Company with a business idea of using a total computer support through the whole building process. The project is partly financed by the Swedish Council for Building Research (BFR) and SBUF. The aim of the project is t o structure the information in the CAD drawings and connect it to alpha numerical data in a generic relational data base outside the CAD system. The structure is based on the code table for building parts which the contractors have agreed upon a couple of years ago. Without such a common structure (accepted and used by everyone) it would have been impossible to get a flow of information through all phases of the building process.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,437,836 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.049693) class.synthesis (0.017502) class.commerce (0.014835)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Terai T

Coding system for act advanced building information system

Abstract: Since fiscal 1983, the Ministry of Construction has been implementing a five-year comprehensive technological development project with a theme of " Development of Systems for Advancement of Construction Technologies through Utilization of Electronics." In this large R and D project, research on Integration of Building Product ion Information has been conducted on software-related technologies and integrated building information system called ACT, Advanced Construction Technology, has been established as a final result. ACT system consists of several standardized sub-systems including classification code, computerized building model, database network, interface information and advanced production images toward 2000. Of those results, this paper summarizes the basic concept of standardized ACT coding system which should be utilized by various kinds of construction-related organizations throughout the building production phases from planning to use. It is yet on conceptual stage but the basic structure of individual tables are fixed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,795,890 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.022546) class.synthesis (0.022206) class.man-software (0.014651)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Thabet W Y, Wakefield R R, Waly A F

Virtual construction for automated schedule generation

Abstract: Ongoing research in automated schedule generation does not allow for interactive user input sessions to translate design information required for sequencing project activities. Rather, current research has focused on capturing, among other things, design knowledge through interpreting 2D drawings and/or 3D CAD models to develop intelligent schedule generation tools. Further, many of these tools do not address the importance of schedule development during the design phase. In this paper the authors introduce "virtual construction" sessions for re-assembling of 3D CAD models in a virtual environment. This will allow for capturing and recording user input for automatic generation of project schedules.

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Full text: content.pdf (91,673 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.028654) class.environment (0.013370) class.analysis (0.008185)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Thomas J R, Worling J

SGML and Office Document Management Systems: Tools for Building Code Writers

Abstract: In conjunction with research being conducted into providing computer based tools to support code users the National Research Council of Canada has also undertaken a research and development program to support the Authors of Code documents. Support for the Code Writers has been based upon the adoption of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) as a mechanism for supporting the management, publication, and information enrichment of the code development and delivery process.All of the current National Building Code documents have been converted to SGML and an Office Document Management System (ODMS) has been implemented to support this process. In addition, a number of prototype authoring tools have been developed to both hide the code authors fromthe SGML encoding of their text and at the same time ensure that the text of the code articles are consistent with the rest of the document.

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Full text: content.pdf (957,324 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.046660) class.store (0.041598) class.software development (0.011293)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Tiula M

Construction 90/ development project for conceptual classification

Abstract: Construction/90 - development project for conceptual classification The aim of this development project is to continue the tradition of the national classification systems on the construction branch by introducing a new conceptual classification - Construction/90 which is an offspring of the previous classifications: Building-70 and Building-PO. The first phase of the development work was finished in May 1988. It creates the theoretical basis for the design of the detailed classification system which will be operative from 1990. The structure of the classification consists of three facets Any of the facets is to be able to cover all the costs involved independently, in order to make an economical control possible from different points of view. Thus every facet totally covers its own particular point of view: giving a complete list of the conceptual items Being a conceptual classification, the emphasis lies on the concepts, n7hich n pr3c1icd use are substituted by selected terms It may as such be called a nomenclature. too. For computer use, however. there will be an alphanumeric characteristic for every item as well Every facet has its principal use. The facets and their users are: Product facets: describes the product structure (elements of building) of the project. Principal user: the designer Resource facet: describes the resource structure (commodities, labour, subcontracts, site machinery) of the project. Principal user: contractor'spurchasing. Production facets describes the operations structure of the project. Principal user: the site management. The Construction/90 classification covers all construction work. i.e. architectural, civil engineering and mechanical works. It also covers all phases of construction from preliminary and technical design to contracting and maintenance It has been designed to meet the needs of the object oriented computer aided production.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,652,879 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.016088) class.software development (0.015047) class.retrieve (0.014991)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


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