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A Guerriero, S Kubicki, L Schwartz

Design and assessment of prospective mobile services for construction

Abstract: Mobile applications become more and more used in both private and professional activities.Innovation through mobile services specification and prototyping becomes a major trend inconstruction sector research. The project presented in this paper aims both at demonstrating theinterest of mobile technologies for assisting building construction coordination and to elicitate themost interesting and common requirements of construction practitioners for this type of application.Then the paper focuses on the method used for specifying basic requirements and the experimentalprotocol setup for assessing the developed prototype. The main outputs are a set of specifications and aprototype of mobile application as well as a method for defining experimental protocols in a context ofservice-based innovation. The prospects envisage considering context-aware mechanisms for therecommendation of mobile services to construction practitioners.

Keywords: Construction management, Mobile computing, Mobile service prototyping, Experiment protocol.

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A Hore, F Cullen, R Montague, K Thomas

ADVANCING THE USE OF BIM THROUGH A GOVERNMENT FUNDED CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY CENTRE IN IRELAND

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to develop the early case for a new Competence Centre dedicated to industry led research in the Irish construction industry. It incorporates the results of a survey carried out by the Construction IT Aliance (CITA) and also identifies similiar centres carrying out industry led research around the world. Results from the survey show a clear support for the establishment of such a centre in Ireland and, in particular, a strong interest in Building Information Modelling (BIM) as a immediate priority research area. BIM is having a profound effect worldwide on the construction industry. The development and adoption of BIM technologies is in parallel with other major changes relating to project procurement approaches, such as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), and the general sustainability agenda. Although slow to take off in Ireland to-date, BIM is becoming extremely relevant in other countries, with over 50% adoption in the United States and an average of 36% in Europe. The authors argue that a government funded Competence Centre will facilitate the Irish construction industry in re-establishing itself, domestically and internationally as a competitive entity.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Industry, Competence Centre, Collaboration, Integrated Project Delivery, Sustainable Construction

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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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A Vasenev, F Bijleveld, T Hartmann, A Dorée

Visualization of asphalt paving process during operations on site

Abstract: Presently important changes are occurring in the road construction industry, resulting in changing roles of road agencies and contractors. Additionally, a lot of new asphalt mixes with new properties are introduced, such as warm or even cold asphalt mixes, thin surfaces, etc. Despite these changes, the current asphalt paving process still heavily relies on the skills and experiences craftsmanship. Instruments to monitor key process parameters are seldom applicable. To overcome these limitations, real-time visualizations of key indicators such as asphalt temperature could provide decisive information to working teams oriented to adjust their operations on site. To move towards real-time decision making support, this paper introduces a workflow to deliver information in meaningful way by providing close to real-time and easily understandable visualizations of asphalt temperatures to roller operators. Using modern technologies like DGPS, temperature linescanner, and wireless connection on site it is possible to deliver visual information about asphalt temperature to support roller operators’ decision making regarding working paths. To implement user-oriented visualization we outlined an overall workflow including equipment selection, infrastructure organization, data processing and visualization phases. We validated the feasibility of workflow implementation through visualization of asphalt temperature on a real-world asphalt paving project.

Keywords: Asphalt paving, construction, infrared thermography, visualization

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A Yurchyshyna, M Léonard

Making a smudge on collective (un)conscious: designing collaborative platforms for construction

Abstract: Collaboration and collaborative environments have been playing an increasingly important role in theconstruction domain. Designing and process modeling, knowledge management and dissemination,communities of practice – this is just an initial list of the building-related activities that benefit fromcollaboration- and services approaches characterizing the construction industry. In this paper, we discuss the phenomenon of collaboration in construction, study the existingcollaborative platforms that are used (or might be applicable) for different building-related activitiesand identify the main challenges that are currently not addressed in the current researches. Wefurthermore underline the role of services-oriented technologies for modeling industry- and businessrelatedprocesses,andshowhowtheyhavebeendefactoimplementedfortheconstructionindustry.Despitea largenumberofdifferentfit-for-purposecollaborativeplatformsforconstruction,weneverthelessunderlinethenecessityofa semanticallyrichcollaborativeenvironmentforheterogeneousconstructionexpertsthatwouldallowthemtokeeptheirownterminologyandworkingpractices,buttoacquireasharedunderstandingofacommontaskwithoutlosingitsintegrity.Inordertodoso,weintroduceourservices-basedapproachforactionalizingthe expert knowledgeand developing an information kernel of a discussed task. This approach forms a theoreticalfoundation for developing a collaborative platform, the Cross-Pollination Space, the semantics ofwhich is dynamically modeled by ontologies and the related interactions are enabled by services. Weshow how this framework allows enriching the collaborative environment during its functioning andsupports expert collaboration without imposing an artificial platform-specific terminology and/orcollaboration patterns.Finally, we canvas the ongoing and future works related to this research and discuss the particularitiesof their contextualization for the construction industry.

Keywords: collaboration in construction, shared semantics, expert knowledge, collaborative platforms, service approach in construction

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B Vladimir, T Maile, J T. O’Donnell, C M Rose, N Mrazovi_

DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND PROCESSING IN SEMI-AUTOMATED SIMULATION WITH ENERGYPLUS

Abstract: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is increasingly used worldwide to quantitatively justify building design decisions and building operations strategies. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the results of such simulation are often questionable, cannot be trusted, and may lead to wrong decisions. Poor simulation model definition and the use of inappropriately acquired and transformed data are two of the most common causes of this. The use of LBNL methodology for semi-automated BEP simulation data input automates data acquisition and transformation, which removes human decision making from the simulation input data definition process. The first of the three major software components (the Geometry Simplification Tool or GST) is already in use. Work on the second component (an interoperable HVAC graphic user interface for EnergyPlus) is under development. The third component (an internal loads generation tool) will be developed in the near future. The original HVAC GUI for EnergyPlus component has evolved into a BEP simulation platform code-named Mojito. A new internal data model which defines all object/attribute/ relationship sets used in BEP simulation, called SimModel, is the central feature of Mojito. Modeling imprecision is very characteristic of geometry representation in building models submitted by the Architecture-Engineering-Construction-Owners-Operator (AECOO) industry. This, and the lagging and very slow development of CAD utilities that can generate higher-level space boundaries needed in BEP simulation, has forced the development of a new tool (SBT) that calculates higher-level space boundaries from IFC-compliant definition of basic building geometry from any model-based CAD tool. It has also forced the addition of new data transformation rules in GST. This paper describes the principles and high-level views of SimModel, SBT and GST internal architectures, and discusses some of the model and tool functionalities. It also provides a brief summary of quality assessment characteristic of building models generated in the AECOO industry.

Keywords: Building data, semi-automated simulation, simulation software, energy simulation data model, data transformation.

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C Argiolas, F Melis, E Quaquero

Knowledge management in building process

Abstract: Over the last few years, the management and organizational aspects of the construction process have undergone a profound reflection that is closely linked to the development and the clear changes in the market. Such market is characterized by a rapid change, a strong growth in technology, and by a widespread and transparent information. International character, knowledge and innovation are key elements to win an increasingly exasperated competition. Moreover, the growing complexity of the construction sector - due both to the rapid proliferation of products and innovative technical solutions, and to the need to take into consideration side, but not secondary, aspects of the object (environmental impact, energy efficiency, durability, safety, etc.) - points out that present management patterns of the construction process are no longer appropriate to the context in which one operates. Therefore, the construction sector faces an inevitable process of growth in which knowledge is an indispensable resource. The present article aims at showing how Knowledge Management techniques (KM) might represent a possible tool to assist in achieving such goals through a rational organization of large amounts of data and through a corporate use of the knowledge that characterizes the various stages of a building process.

Keywords: knowledge management, building process, interoperability, collaborative design

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C Bogen, M Rashid, E W East

A Framework for Building Information Fusion

Abstract: Data reported by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems is critical for evaluating the as-operated performance of a facility. Typically these systems are designed to support specific control domains, but facility performance analysis requires the fusion of data across these domains. Since a facility may have several disparate, closed-loop SCADA systems, resolution of data interoperability issues (heterogeneities) is a prerequisite to cross-domain data fusion. There are no general methods for resolving these heterogeneities in the context of a nonproprietary core building information model (BIM) format. This article describes how these standard data models are applied to a general framework for the integration of building information models and building sensor telemetry. Given the number of very large corporations, each with its own research agendas and proprietary products, and the large number of installed buildings, each with its own control systems, yet another control scheme or technology will not make an impact on improving this market. The authors propose solutions to these underlying data heterogeneities by adopting existing data standards and introducing new data schemas (only when necessary) based on consensus between industry, government, and academic stakeholders. The Industry Foundation Class (IFC) 2X4 controls domain is the foundation of the authors’ decomposition of SCADA systems as components, assemblies, and connections that relate to other objects in the facility. The Open Building Information eXchange (oBIX) provides the basis for the authors’ representation of raw telemetry streams that map to the underlying IFC model. The system concept described in this article is part of an effort that is expected to produce an Industry Foundation Class Model View Definition (MVD) for building SCADA systems, product type templates for building SCADA products, the architectural design of an integration platform, and the specification of common predictive and analytical functions for deriving usable intelligence from the integration framework.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Data Fusion, Building Controls and Automation, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Industry Foundation Classes IFC

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C Changxin Wang,

Ontology based Knowledge Retrieving in a Web Collaboration Environment for Construction Industry

Abstract: As the amount of information and knowledge that we deal with in construction projects are huge, computerized collaboration and management systems have been seen as effective tools for construction project participants. While a vast amount of information and knowledge can be stored in these systems, how to retrieve knowledge when needed is a challenge. Traditional keyword search usually results in high returns but low precision, as context and terminology difference are not considered. This research implements construction domain ontology into a web collaboration environment. Domain ontology provides a common understanding of a domain (a particular area) in which people and the application system communicates with each other. The ontology is composed of a network of concepts, which are clearly defined and interlinked based on their context. Knowledge items published in the web are annotated according to the ontology, and enable the semantic inference to locate a particular knowledge items during the retrieval process. In this paper, some knowledge items (knowledge stories) are published as blog entries in the web collaboration systems, and a comparison between traditional keyword search and ontology based retrieval is reported. The ontology based knowledge retrieving gives much more accurate returns, and therefore can facilitate the web-based knowledge sharing practice more efficiently in the construction industry.

Keywords: Ontology, Knowledge management, Knowledge retrieving, Construction industry, Web-based collaboration.

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