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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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C Kasprzak, C Dubler, E Gannon, E Nulton

ALIGNING BIM WITH FM: STREAMLINING THE PROCESS FOR FUTURE PROJECTS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES

Abstract: A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM) will add value to their daily tasks.The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. Specific topics to be ascertained are: the research steps taken to develop a strategic implementation plan for information exchange process between project stakeholders and the OPP; an overview and gap analysis of the existing operations processes currently implemented; and a summary of the collaboration effort between vendors, project stakeholders and the OPP to develop this information integration. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

Keywords: BIM, Facility Management, Owner, Operations

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C Mastrodonato, A Cavallaro, M Hannus, J Nummelin, N Jung

ICt for Energy Efficienct buildings: proposed approach for a stakeholders-based strategic roadmap

Abstract: ICT4E2B Forum project aims to bring together all relevant stakeholders involved in ICT systems and solutions for Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Moreover the project has the objective of identifying and reviewing the needs in terms of research and systems integration as well as at accelerating implementation and take-up. ICT4E2B Forum bases its roadmapping activities on the outputs of REEB project that has already developed a high-level roadmap on ICT for Energy Efficient Buildings. Starting from this expert-based work, ICT4E2B Forum intends to promote, through community building activities, a better understanding, a closer dialogue and a more active cooperation between researchers, end-users/practitioners, building owners, technology-suppliers, and software. The exploitation of ICT is consider the adding value in order to support informed decision-making (both human and automated) in the current delivery and in the use of sustainable and energy-efficient buildings and districts. By accomplishing these objectives, ICT4E2B Forum is mapping the sector-specific priorities into a common view and vocabulary, thereby enabling communication and understanding between experts in different sectors that need to join forces in order that fundamental improvements in energy efficient buildings can be achieved. All this coordination work will support in defining future research directions as well as in channelling efforts, while favouring consensus buildings on the roadmap itself.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, ICT4E2B Forum project, REEB project, Strategic Roadmap, Stakeholder-based.

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C McCartney, L Kiroff

Factors affecting the uptake of BIM in the Auckland Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry

Abstract: Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as the next paradigm shift in the building design and construction industry since the move from traditional drafting to 2D computer aided design systems. Although BIM has been available for a number of years worldwide, its adoption and use in the New Zealand, and especially Auckland Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has been relatively limited.The aim of this research is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of BIM in the Auckland market by incorporating the views of various architecture, engineering and construction firms. This study is based on a qualitative research methodology. A number of semi-structured interviews, using a questionnaire guide, were conducted with industry professionals from the architecture, structural engineering, services engineering, and construction contractor industry sectors to gain an insight into their current use of BIM and identify what benefits and barriers they encountered in its use and implementation.The findings of this research showed that most industry sectors are currently using BIM as a three dimensional tool for coordinating the various design disciplines, as well as for 3D clash detection and 2D documentation production. Other reasons for BIM use included producing 3D and 4D visualizations and virtual walkthroughs to help non-technical people understand the design intent. Although the literature describes training and cost of implementation as major factors affecting the uptake of BIM, most of the research participants downplayed these issues, explaining that adopting BIM was a commercial decision made to stay ahead of their competitors, and that the extra training involved actually improved the skill base of their organizations. This study concludes that to progress with the use of BIM, a truly integrated and collaborative approach must be adopted in order to achieve gains in coordination, productivity, cost management, and overall project outcomes.

Keywords: BIM, AEC industry, 3D modeling, 4D visualization, Survey

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C Yon Cho, Y Hyun Park, G Lee

Identifiyng a Subset of BPMN for IDM Development

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a subset of business process modeling notation (BPMN) to improve the information delivery manual (IDM) development process. The information delivery manual (IDM) (ISO/DIS 29481-1, 2008) currently recommends using BPMN for describing process maps (PM). The BPMN model is a generic graphical representation standard for specifying business processes targeted at a wide range of industry sectors. In its present form, it includes an unwieldy number of symbols and rules (currently over 160 notations) in order to cover a wide range of uses. Consequently, many process models use only a small number of these notations. This study collected and analyzed BPMN notations used in 54 processes in 14 existing PMs developed by various organizations. It was found that only 36 notations are used in IDM development. Based on these 36 notations, a subset of BPMN for IDM development is proposed.

Keywords: Information delivery manual, Korea construction process, Exchange requirement, Process map, BIM

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D Browne, K Menzel

Method for Validation of Building Simulation Results using Sensor Data

Abstract: In general, current Building Energy Simulation Tools are used for pre-construction design and comparison of designs rather than a full exact varying representation of reality. To provide the best level of detail full CFD analysis for the entire building would be required. However this is currently by far outside the scope of current computing power for a building energy system. Because these simulation tools are designed for comparison of potential designs and because of the difficulty in predicting occupant behaviour, very often the predicted results do not correlate with the real actual performance when buildings are in operation. From project experience encountered in the EU FP7 IntUBE project, a deficit has been encountered whereby the correlation between simulation results and real measured data is not entirely accurate. This paper discusses a method of validation, which will provide a means of comparing measured data (e.g. sensors and weather data), and simulated data (e.g. near future simulations). This method for validation of building simulation results initially involves a comparison of data from building simulation and respective measured sensor readings. From this comparison, value is added from correction of simulation results, and/or input to simulation parameters. Further worth can also be provided by gaining knowledge for creation of simulation profiles which are difficult to predict before construction & operation. Additional value can also be derived from identifying conditions of poor results and relevant factors which can be corrected. Simulation data and actual data is available from a housing unit in Barcelona Spain and research building in Cork Ireland.The expected result to be derived from this method is to give an indication of quality of simulated data results and provide feedback. If the difference between simulated and real data is too large, steps to improve results will be suggested. In future it is envisioned that automated adjustments may performed to simulation inputs to correct results. Aside from near future simulation validation, the tool may be able to provide long term commissioning feedback to detect and alert users to long term degradation of systems and possible maintenance or repair remedies.

Keywords: Simulation, Data Modelling, Validation

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D Greenwood, S Lockley, O Jones, P Jones

THE EFFICACY OF REALISTIC VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN CAPTURING USER EXPERIENCE OF BUILDINGS

Abstract: Virtual models can offer early and inexpensive proxies of how the real environment will be experienced by its users. However, until relatively recently, the usefulness of virtual models has been constrained by the technological limitations of the software and hardware. Games engines now offer the industry a way to import multiple 3d formats to streamline workflow, with far greater realism and complex interactions with the created virtual environment. In order to be accepted as a reliable tool for design development and problem solving in architecture, engineering and construction, these virtual experiences must be capable of producing user-feedback that is credible. The assumption that a model of human experience from a virtual environment can be a dependable representation of how the real environment will be experienced needs to be tested. Such tests have hitherto offered inconclusive results and the paper reports on the early stages of a current project that aims to redress this. The use of equipment familiar to cognitive psychologists, such as lightweight head-mounted eye tracking systems, should enable comparisons to be made between user-experiences of real environments and their realistic virtual counterparts. Should the virtual environments be shown to communicate similar physiological responses from the participants and deliver similar experiential qualities when compared to the real environment, then it can be argued that they offer realistic visual representations and accurate representations of experience.

Keywords: Architectural design, Games, User experience, Virtual environments

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D Ilter

A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS (SOS) APPROACH TO DISPUTE

Abstract: There has been an increasing attention towards more effective dispute avoidance and resolution in the construction industry due to the significance of the costs associated with disputes. Many researchers have attempted to develop systems that aim to manage disputes by providing dispute evaluation, negotiation support, litigation prediction and decision support through the use of various tools. Although these systems have been developed separately, a careful consideration shows that they can be incorporated into a meta-system that pools their resources and capacities to obtain more functionality and performance. This aim fits well with the System of Systems (SoS) approach, which includes incorporating a collection of independent and task-oriented systems into a new, more complex system offering more utility than the sum of the constituent systems. After analysing current dispute management systems in the literature, a framework has been developed for the integration of these systems by SoS approach. The primary objective of developing a SoS framework is modelling the opportunities of cooperation while maintaining independence of the constituent systems, and exploring new systems required in an evolving perspective for a holistic management of disputes in the construction domain. The findings reveal that SoS represents a structured and comprehensive approach to modelling dispute management systems as a networked meta-system. SoS approach provides mechanisms to analysing and classifying existing systems, modelling the opportunities of cooperation between the constituent systems, adding or subtracting systems to and from the system in evolution, and maintaining the same amount of management and resources as before with more precise results from each system. As a result, the effectiveness of the constituent systems is expected to increase due to interoperability and resource sharing in the SoS framework.

Keywords: Dispute resolution, Dispute management systems, System of systems (SoS) approach.

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D Zignale, S Kubicki, G Halin

Collaborative practices for the adaptation of IT services to sustainable building design projects. Case study of design assessment-related practices

Abstract: Many professionals of the construction sector feel a need for improvement of the Information Technology (IT) that supports their work. Our main hypothesis is that this improvement is strictly dependent of a good knowledge of business activities. This study addresses this issue, introducing a method to adapt IT supported services to business practices. This method is based on a structured approach aiming at (1) identifying Collective Practices, (2) focusing on actors’ Individual Practices and Operations, (3) distinguishing different technology-related Usages and finally (4) selecting or designing adapted IT services relying on precedent analysis. An example based on sustainable project practices will illustrate the approach.

Keywords: ICT adaptation, Computer-Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), Collective Practices, Sustainable Building design, Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) design.

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E Ergen, A Dikbas,I Tekce, D Ilter, H Giritli, M Jablonski, A Kowalska

Investigation of price banks and life cycle inventoriesfor pan-European life cycle costanalysis system

Abstract: When comparing alternative strategies for a project, owners and users should not only consider the initial capital cost, but also the running costs which are incurred over its operating life. Total life cycle cost (LCC) is a recognized approach to identify the future total cost implications of individual building elements or the entire building in the future. However, as sustainability gained significance in the construction industry, it became clear that LCC is not the only the only factor to be considered. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a building is also of great importance. LCA need to be performed to determine the effect of the construction and constructed structure on the environment (i.e., CO2 emission). To provide comparable LCC and LCA results and outputs, significant amount of work is needed to normalize data in existing sources. This paper describes the characteristics of the current databases that can be integrated with the Pan-European life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) system, which is an ongoing EU 7th framework CILECCTA (Construction Industry LifE Cycle Cost Analysis software) project. The goal of the CILECCTA project is to develop an online decision support system for assessment and identification sustainable and economic options for pan-European construction and renovation projects. This tool will provide comparable LCC and LCA results for different project options and assist users in selecting the most appropriate option. It will be compatible with various price banks which supply necessary data for LCC, and life cycle inventories (LCIs) that provide data for LCA across Europe and beyond. The tool will also allow for consideration of uncertainty (e.g., in design and functionality), which is inherent in construction, renovation and through life cycle of a structure. The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics (e.g., classification systems, data availability) of existing price banks and LCA databases in Europe.

Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Cost, Life Cycle Inventory, Price Bank

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