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E Hjelseth, N Nisbet

Capturing normative constraints by use of the semantic mark-up RASE methodology

Abstract: The AEC industry is highly regulated by a large number of rules given by public laws, codes, and regulative standards at both national and international levels. The relevant information in these documents need to be captured as rules for model checking in a time and cost effective way. The foundation for the RASE concept is using mark-up based on the four operators; requirement (R), applicabilities (A), selection (S) and exceptions (E) on normative text. The RASE technology has been tested on following three categories of documents: standard (case: NS 11001-1.E:2009 Universal design of building constructions - Part 1: Work buildings and buildings open to the public), standards with tables (Dubai regulations) and guidelines (case: GSA court design guidance document, USA). In each case expectations have been documented using free prose. On examination, the key clauses and phrases can be identified along with their role, allowing a testable, logical statement to be generated. The logical statement is then ready to be used by a compliance-checking engine to apply tests to a description of the facility. The results indicate that the RASE methodology can operate on a different types of normative documents with a trustworthy results.

Keywords: Knowledge representation, Semantics, Ontology, Classification, Model checking

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E Hjelseth

Modular BIM Guidelines

Abstract: This paper presents a concept for development of modular BIM Building Information Models –guidelines based on a knowledge management perspective. BIM guidelines are at present mainly developed by large companies and organisations for their own needs and processes. Due to the high cost and time consumed in their development, these are often used in projects and processes which they are not optimized for. Turning the development process around allows practitioners to start by specifying relevant information in “information modules”. An information module, IM, is a unit of information for a specified purpose, and can be both pre-defined or develop as a part or the design process, and collected into libraries. The IM’s can then be dynamically assembled into BIM guidelines. Use of the principles of modular BIM guidelines enables the AEC/FM companies to develop their own guidelines adapted to theirs requirements. Starting with specifying information modules can therefore be an initiative for development of active knowledge managements systems.

Keywords: BIM, Knowledge representation, Knowledge management, IDM, Standardization

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E Sabbatini, G M Revela, A Sicilia, M Böhms

Integration of an Infrared-based monitoring system with an EIIP (Energy Information Integration Platform) for innovative efficient indoor environment control

Abstract: An innovative thermography based measurement system for real-time estimation of thermal behaviour of a room is already developed as part of the FP7 project IntUBE. The applied approach is based on indoor measurements by an infrared (IR) camera and image post-processing to derive mean surface temperatures, thermal comfort indices, air temperature, number of occupants with the relative heat gains generated and presence of other heat sources (e.g. computers). The purpose is to provide spatially distributed room energy information in order to obtain instantaneous feedback displayed for the users or eventually for automatic HVAC control. Lumped parameter model of the room receives data from IR camera to compute exchanged heat rate and air temperature. A low-cost IR sensor, commercially available as surveillance system with automatic movement control that can provide qualitative data output, has been upgraded with a new interface to achieve quantitative data. The paper describes the integration of energy information related to the developed monitoring device (e.g. PMV - Predictive Mean Vote, PPD - Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied, room air temperature as output, humidity value from external sensor as input) within the IntUBE Energy Information Integration Platform (EIIP). The key aspect of the platform is smartness or “semantics”: ICT applications will communicate via this integration platform on the basis of semantic building objects. Performance Information Model (PIM) server stores data regarding the actual monitored performances of a building (energy, temperature, humidity, PMV etc.). These operational data together with the actual weather data can be used e.g. to compare actual performances with simulated performances and can lead to corrective actions. The paper demonstrates that an advanced monitoring/control system (as the IR-based one) can benefit from retrieving data from the EIIP through SPARQL queries, thus activating new functionalities with interoperability guaranteed by the Platform semantics.

Keywords: Thermography, Thermal comfort, Integration Platform, Interoperability, Semantics

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E Santos, E Toledo Santos

Design Coordination with Building Information Modelling – BIM: A Case Study

Abstract: Despite some isolated initiatives using 3D CAD or BIM (Building Information Modeling) tools, project processes in the Brazilian AEC industry are still essentially developed using 2D technology, especially in the design development phases. There is evidence in the literature that 2D representations are prone to difficult-to-detect design errors and representation mistakes. BIM is an emerging paradigm based on object oriented, parameterized 3D CAD tools that promises an even better performance in design coordination processes than standard 3D CAD. This work aims to identify the potential for using BIM tools in the design coordination process as a more effective alternative to two-dimensional methods (abstraction and overlaying of drawings for interference checks and clash detection among different design disciplines). The research was based on the execution of a case study involving a complex residential building. Its design was developed as usual, with 2D CAD, as was its coordination process, by professional firms hired by the owner. Afterwards, using the same documents provided to the coordination firm, the first author independently developed the architectural, structural, plumbing, and HVAC BIM models for the standard floor plan of the building, simulating both the Schematic Design (SD) and the Design Development (DD) phases. During and after this process, detected interferences and information errors or omissions were documented in order to be compared with those reported in the traditional process of design coordination. The comparative analysis of both reports in this case study showed that the methodology with BIM detected 75% more design interferences and inconsistencies than the 2D-CAD supported method. This was partly due to the easier visualization of the virtual model, and to the software features for automating interference checks. On the other hand, the analysis of the interferences found in both processes demonstrated that the modeling procedure alone can affect design perception and evaluation, allowing the detection of a greater number of incompatibilities during the process.

Keywords: Design Coordination, BIM, Clash Detection, Case study

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E Tobin,H Yin, K Menzel

Analysis of Performance Data from HVAC Components for Prediction of Maintenance Requirements

Abstract: This paper describes a methodology which manages a building’s maintenance activities by focusing on the timing of maintenance activities. Its goal is to optimise the trade-off between cost, which is incurred through maintenance activities, and the components health, which varies as a result of maintenance frequency. Here existing data from a BMS is utilises and analysis is performed on this data, with the objective of scheduling maintenance for a component, based on the measured performance of that component. This paper will investigate which data analysis technique provides the most certainty when determining the expected performance level. The major outcome of this paper is to present the certainty levels for each data analysis technique and illustrate how the analysis can be used for predicting maintenance requirements. Also this paper will have presented a methodology for managing maintenance activities and an implementation of these results using a Decision Support Framework for maintenance management. This research is performed as part of a nationally funded project ‘Information Technology for Optimised Building Operation’ (ITOBO).

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Maintenance Management, Performance Based Maintenance, Performance Data Analysis, ITOBO.

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F Talbourdet, F Andrieux, B Vinot, Pierre Michel, M El Mankibi, J R Millet

Stochastic optimization based approach for efficient building design

Abstract: Facing the building related energetic and environmental issues, and heeding the thermal regulations standards, building designers have to think in a different way there design approach in order to make buildings more efficient. Therefore, designers need a method to get information on the potential of a building program and on the optimal solution to improve visual and thermal comfort, and to reduce energy requirements and construction cost. This paper describes a genetic algorithm based approach applied to building energy simulation tools in order to optimize building design, from the geometry to the energetic properties, while minimizing energy, discomforts and costs. According to designer goals, two approaches were studied:• The first way is to let designers choose the approach of optimization for the building geometry, from optimization of external and internal geometry to providing complete geometry.• The second way is to let designers adapt the scope of the optimization.In order to take various potential occupancies into account, several models of occupation has been integrated to the building numerical model. Models could be provided by designers according to their feedback.To finish, this approach is tested on a basic case to assess its performances and to find the points where it needs to be improved.

Keywords: Efficient Building design, Multicriteria optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Bioclimatic architecture

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G Hamazaki, G B. Monteiro Lopes

An Approach about the Modelling process to Geometric Objects with the ISO 15926 standard

Abstract: No matter in which area they are applied, information technologies are used to increase the productivity of companies that use different computer systems from different suppliers. Most of time, data are stored in proprietary format. This fact creates difficulties for the integration and interoperation between the computer systems, forcing companies to invest money to simply mitigate this problem. Specifically in the field of Oil & Gas, the ISO 15926 standard (Industrial automation systems and integration – Integration of life-cycle data for process plants including oil and gas production facilities) proposes a standard for integration, sharing, exchange and delivery of data between computer systems based on the standardization of data formats and on an ontology approach to represent common industry classes and relations. Due to the structure and the large number of terms defined at the ISO 15926 standard, the complexity to model objects using that library is high. This work presents a methodology to model geometric objects following structure of the standard, harmonizing Parts 2, 3, 4 and 7 of ISO15926. The writers take into account the need for complete abstraction between geometry and business data, as well as the requirement for a federated architecture for managing process plant project item symbology.

Keywords: Geometry, Ontology, Semantic Web, Interoperability, Oil & Gas¬

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G Kapogiannis, F Khosrowshahi, J Underwood

Digital Services for Construction Small and Medium Enterprises: A Conceptual Business Model

Abstract: The rapid deployment of web technologies delivers information from diverse sources in the world of digital business in a unified way. Within the construction industry the demand for investments in the digital dimension has raised very fast indicating a trend towards on-line collaboration services usually offered through a web portal. The main purpose of this research is to examine how the use of a web portal enhances the mission of construction Small Medium Enterprises (SME) in the local, national and international economy. Therefore, features and services captured from existing construction web portals are listed quantitatively to indicate those that are important to support the enterprise needs of construction managers and directors. Additionally the common practical and essential features considered in the technical and contextual design of a web portal geared for the use within the domain of construction SMEs in order to promote enterprise continuity in digital business are briefly presented. Results indicate potential support of interaction and collaboration among partners in the construction industry due to direct information accessibility as well as an attractive web platform developed based upon their daily needs. Therefore the need to develop a web business model is suggested to enhance the role of construction SMEs with a focus on online collaboration (online services). This model aspires to provide potential practical on-line dissemination of knowledge within construction SMEs to help the world of construction managers and directors in order for them to be more efficient, effective and creative when developing new businesses, new ideas and new projects. This model is partitioned to accommodate for flexible and scalable technological infrastructures that offer the necessary web services addressed to construction SMEs.

Keywords: Construction SME, Web Portal Technologies, Web Services, Virtual Organisation, Communication

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G Lee, Sl Ham, Y Hyun Park

FRAMEWORK OF THE EXTENDED PROCESS TO PRODUCT MODELING (XPPM) FOR EFFICIENT IDM DEVELOPMENT

Abstract: This paper introduces a new “extended Process to Product Modeling (xPPM)” for efficient Information Delivery Manual (IDM) development. The current IDM development typically uses Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) to represent a Process Map (PM). However, the resultant Process Map is isolated from the development of Exchange Requirements (ERs) and Functional Parts (FPs). ERs and FPs specify the information required when information is exchanged between different activities. The extended Process to Product Modeling (xPPM) method is proposed to provide a tight connection between PMs, ERs, and FPs. The theoretical framework is based on the Georgia Tech Process to Product Modeling. An xPPM tool is being developed in Java to support several IDM development efforts in South Korea.

Keywords: xPPM, IDM, product modeling, process modeling

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H Deshpande, H Leslie

A STRATEGY TO DEVELOP A FRAMEWORK FOR DISTRIBUTED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN THE AEC-FM INDUSTRY

Abstract: This paper reviews and analyses the problem of distributed decision-making in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction and Facility Management (AEC-FM) industry and at the operation and management of a supporting information system. These problems include uncoordinated information gathering, reporting and management, as well as multiple redrawing and re-keying of information, which lead to unnecessary costs, increased errors, and misunderstanding. While major advances have been made since CIDA articulated these problems fifteen years ago, particularly in relation to the Building Information Modelling (BIM), its call for easy access to standardized information relevant to each industry sector is yet to be fully answered. While individual industry sectors and organisations have made significant advances in their respective areas of concern, significantly less progress has been made when it comes to the access and exchange of information between sectors or over the life-cycle of a facility. In order to advance the agenda, this paper first takes a comprehensive look at the way the project decision-makers access, process and exchange information, and at how that data is managed over space and time. The paper then describes a strategy to develop a framework for an integrated system for information management that is comprehensive and well integrated, addressing the needs of all sectors of the industry and all phases of the facility life-cycle. The strategy also makes it possible to bring together all the diverse developments such as BIM, IFCs, IDEF, IFD, in the framework, thus helping to manage the information in all its myriad aspects. As many of the concepts raised here are similar to but slightly different from those in current circulation, the paper identifies and describes a number of key concepts used to formulate the strategy. The paper describes the proposed system in functional terms and outlines the simple demonstration packages within it that illustrate the wider picture and provide a context within which individual interest groups can act.

Keywords: Distributed information management, Performance-based project data, Product/Process data management. BIM

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