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I Mutis

Understanding collective intelligence of construction project actors within a social network technology

Abstract: The disjointed group of actors who team up to work on a project constitutes a collective entity that is represented by social networks. The advancement of social network technologies enhances the researcher’s ability to understand individual and collective actions in order to effectively solve problems, make decisions, enrich knowledge, and reach consensus. These technologies enable the interfacing of actors who belong to the project network in order to facilitate the execution of project activities in collaboration. Since the aggregation of either individual or collective actors’ actions constitutes project activities, this research investigates the nature of these actions within a project organization, defined as a social structure that is represented as a project network through a web-enabled social network system. The actions form and reveal patterns that are scrutinized as routines within the project organizations. Of particular interest to this research are the potential gains in the efficiency, profits, and effectiveness of satisfactorily executed routines as an aggregation of actions. Moreover, this new kind of collective intelligence allows for the exploration of how actions performed through a web-enabled social network system may collectively act more intelligently than they have done before. It is critical, therefore, to scientifically explore actions within web-enabled social network environments through the study of routines executed by (1) single actors and (2) the aggregate of single individual actors. For this purpose, we developed theoretical constructs as framework for collective intelligence. Articulated by human-centered actions, four main constructs are involved in the framework: (1) social actors and communities of practice, (2) social structures, or organizations, (3) social objects as forms of representation of information, and (4) web-enabled social network technology. Examples of expected benefits are the facilitation of group strategies to reach decisions and control of group performance.

Keywords: Collective-intelligence, social networks, routines, social actors, communities of practice.

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J Beetz,L Van Berlo, R De Laat, P Bonsma

ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF AN OPEN SOURCE MODEL SERVER FOR BUILDING INFORMATION

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Keywords: Model Server, IFC, MDA, REST

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J Lucas, T Bulbul, W Thabet

A LIFECYCLE FRAMEWORK FOR USING BIM IN HEALTHCARE FACILITY MANAGEMENT

Abstract: Facility Management (FM) is important for healthcare environments to provide adequate and safe treatment to patients by maintaining the physical environment. FM activities are challenged by being disconnected from other processes within a facility’s lifecycle. Within healthcare, this disconnect is compounded by insufficient communication with clinical personnel about concurrent clinical operations. Insufficient communication can lead to added risk to patient safety and additional cost to healthcare procedures. This paper describes research on identifying the information across the facility lifecycle and within the facility management and operation stage that are needed to support FM activities in healthcare environments. This information will be used to develop an ontology of integrated FM and clinical information for improving the quality of care in a healthcare setting. The ontology will be linked to a BIM. The ontology will ensure that needed information for facility operations is recorded throughout the lifecycle of the facility and allow facility managers quick access to better organized information. Focus will be on giving an overview of the methods used for determining information needs for FM activities through case study analysis. Case studies are identified through interviews with FM and clinical personnel as well as through literature review. Select cases are documented with Business Process Model Notation (BPMN) allowing for separation of steps and actors within each case. Information needs for each of the steps is determined and overlaid onto the BPMN diagrams. Lastly, the source of each information types is determined. Future work will take the information types, and their origins, determined through this analysis and apply it to an ontology. The ontology will support a BIM-based system for capturing information throughout the lifecycle of the facility in support of the operation and maintenance of the facility.

Keywords: Facility Management, Healthcare, Building Information Modelling, Ontology

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J Nummelin, K Sulankivi, M Kiviniemi, T Koppinen

MANAGING BUILDING INFORMATION AND CLIENT REQUIREMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN – CONSTRUCTOR’S VIEW

Abstract: Supply chain management (SCM) has been undervalued subject in the construction process. Effectiveness of the supply chain and information interaction, are fundamental requirements of the industrialised construction having immediate influence on construction productivity. Information management methodologies in the construction are not at the same level as in some other industries mainly due the fragmented project based business models. In the last 10 years, the building information model (BIM) technologies have become common in design phase and gained critical mass for credible usage as a platform for construction planning and management, and for product data management in supply chains. However, the participants in the process interpret the project information from design documents differently. Interpretation actualises in several phases of project without systematic data management. The use of intellectual information on virtual model is unsystematic and users of models exploit the data manually. The current construction process sets also restrictions to the implementation of BIM technologies, but the BIM based building design itself will improve the construction process and reduce the errors with real 3D design work, and better compatibility of design disciplines. Now the accomplishment of all these benefits is not necessarily possible.The main objective in on-going research is to develop a comprehensive BIM based product data management procedure for the supply chains in industrialised construction process. This requires the definition of the process and needed methodologies that the stakeholders in networked construction branch can apply to get product and production information in an electronically interpretable format, and update their subset of this information. In this paper, we will define the key challenges and possibilities for BIM based supply chain management between main contractor and product suppliers. This paper rests on the observations made in product group specific workshops, interviews and meetings related to three different kinds of product groups.

Keywords: supply chain management, BIM, construction

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J Pérez, J_C Marcel, J Viñuela, V Gay, M Bourdeau

FIEMSER: Energy Efficiency in Smart Residential Buildings

Abstract: Buildings are responsible for up to 40% of energy use in most countries. However, there is a great potential to improve this figure, and ICT is one of the key tools to achieve it. This paper will present how the FIEMSER system will contribute to increase the energy efficiency in residential buildings through a double strategy: optimizing the operation of the building (energy demand, local generation and storage) and improving the behaviour of the building users. The FIEMSER system is an innovative Building Energy Management System (BEMS) for existing and new residential buildings that is been developed in the context of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Current BEMSs have several weaknesses: predefined energy control strategies, lack of integration of the local energy generation with the building energy consumption, lighting system is completely decoupled from the HVAC system, based on wired control networks, limited interoperability, … FIEMSER system will define dynamic and holistic control strategies that take into account the current and future building operating conditions (building users activities, weather conditions, energy prices,…) and integrate the different energy related subsystems: HVAC, lighting, local generation and energy storage. The FIEMSER system leverages on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm with the definition of modular service interfaces. This paradigm provides the necessary flexibility to adapt the system to the different configurations, integrate existing control protocols and emerging wireless ones, and support different GUI (Graphical User Interface). This paper will address the following questions: opportunities to reduce energy demand and increase local generation in residential buildings; operation scenarios; functional requirements of the FIEMSER system; the OSGI-SOA architecture that supports it and the associated data model.

Keywords: Smart Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Intelligent Control, Local Generation

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J Ye, Keith Ellis, T Hassan, S Firth, 3Matti Hannus, C Sheridan

an approach to Impact Assessment of ICTs for Energy Efficiency

Abstract: The importance of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as an enabler for energy efficiency is well understood, however there is no one agreed common methodology for assessing the impact of ICTs on energy efficiency. In order to promote legitimacy, transparency and real progress in the application of ICTs to improving energy efficiency there is a clear need for common ways of assessing energy performance based on a common understanding of commitments, targets and methodology. In this paper, common means for assessing the impact of ICTs on energy efficiency are reviewed and the approaches of organisations focused on the development of ICT impact assessment methodologies are discussed. Subsequently, a potentially useful means of qualitative impact assessment is suggested. The proposed methodology aims to leverage the heuristics of domain experts and is based on life cycle thinking coupled with elements of an adapted capability maturity model/framework. The SMARTT taxonomy developed as part of the overall approach for common assessment is also described. SMARTT stands for Specification and design, Materialisation, Automation and operational decision support, Resource and process management, Technical integration and Trading/transactional management. Aligned to these six high level categories are twenty sub-categories to which user-defined ICTs/research and technology developments (RTDs) are mapped. An impact assessment example is given to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used at the offering level. The SMARTT taxonomy and common methodology are deemed by the authors to be as a useful means of assessing the impact of ICTs on energy efficiency both within and across sectors and potentially offers a foundation on which to base more quantitative methods to assess the impact of ICTs on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Impact assessment model, ICT, Energy efficiency, Impact quantification

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J Zeb,T Froese, D Vanier

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A PROCESS MATURITY MODEL IN THE DOMAIN OF INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT

Abstract: As information systems continue to expand their reach into the work process of the construction industry, communication and information exchange that traditionally occurs between humans is increasingly being replaced with automated or semi-automated information exchange between computer systems. These computer-based communications must be more formally defined and designed than the human-based communications that they replace. We are researching techniques to formally represent design information transactions within the construction industry. As part of this work, we are interested in assessing the degree to which information exchange processes are formalized and managed. This paper focuses on the development and application of an Infrastructure Management-Process Maturity Model (IM-PMM) to benchmark the degree of formalization of work and communication processes in the infrastructure management field. The proposed IM-PMM evolved through reviewing a set of relevant maturity models. It uses a scale of five levels of process maturity and is based on three core dimensions (process, actor role, and information definition) to benchmark work processes, plus one dimension (message definition) to benchmark communication processes. The proposed IM-PMM has been applied in the domain of infrastructure management and attempts to benchmark only the asset inventory and condition assessment reporting processes using researcher-administered structured interview approach. From the results of the survey, it is concluded that communication processes in the area of infrastructure management are typically accomplished in an ad hoc (undefined and unstructured) manner, emphasizing the need for improvement if advanced information systems are to be deployed to support efficient management of infrastructure systems.

Keywords: Process Maturity Model, Benchmark, Maturity Stage, Process Formalism, Transaction, Message, Actor-Role, Asset Infrastructure Management, Asset Inventory Management, Asset Condition Assessment

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J Zhang, N El-Gohary

AUTOMATED INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM CONSTRUCTION-RELATED REGULATORY DOCUMENTS FOR AUTOMATED COMPLIANCE CHECKING

Abstract: Manual regulatory compliance checking is usually time-consuming, costly, and error-prone. Automating the process of compliance checking is expected to reduce the time and cost of the process, as well as reduce the probability of making compliance assessment errors. One aspect of automating the compliance checking process is automating the extraction of information (rules that the project needs to comply with) from construction-related regulatory documents (which are expressed in textual format). With the advancements in the artificial intelligence domain, natural language processing (NLP) techniques are being widely used in many fields for information extraction from unstructured text. There have been few research efforts to apply NLP techniques in the construction domain. However, none of these efforts attempted to automatically extract rules from textual regulatory documents. In this paper, the authors propose an approach for semantic information extraction (using domain-specific meaning, in addition to syntax-related text features) to automatically extract information from construction-related regulatory documents and represent it in a computer-understandable, structured format. Preliminary experimental results are presented and discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Compliance Checking, Natural Language Processing, Information Extraction, Artificial Intelligence, Automation

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K Joergensen

Classification of Building Object Types Misconceptions, challenges and opportunities

Abstract: Development of the existing classification systems has been very difficult and time consuming tasks, where many considerations have been taken and many compromises have been made. The results reveal that, although the theoretical foundation was clarified, many deviations and shortcuts have been made. This is certainly the case in the Danish development. Based on the theories about these abstraction mechanisms, the basic principles for classification systems are presented and the observed misconceptions are analyses and explained. Furthermore, it is argued that the purpose of classification systems has changed and that new opportunities should be explored. Some proposals for new applications are presented and carefully aligned with IT opportunities. Especially, the use of building modelling will give new benefits and many of the traditional uses of classification systems will instead be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models.Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types.

Keywords: classification, composition, taxonomy, building object, building model

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K Riad BOUZIDI, B Fies, M Bourdeau, C Faron-Zucker,N Le Thanh

AN ONTOLOGY FOR MODELLING AND SUPPORTING THE PROCESS OF AUTHORING TECHNICAL ASSESSMENTS

Abstract: In this paper, we present a semantic web approach for modelling the process of creating new technical and regulatory documents related to the Building sector. This industry, among other industries, is currently experiencing a phenomenal growth in its technical and regulatory texts. Therefore, it is urgent and crucial to improve the process of creating regulations by automating it as much as possible. We focus on the creation of particular technical documents issued by the French Scientific and Technical Centre for Building (CSTB), called Technical Assessments, and we propose services based on Semantic Web models and techniques for modelling the process of their creation.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Web, Knowledge Management, Building Industry, E-regulations

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