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Aparna Perikamana, Steven K. Ayer, Michael A. Beauregard and Suleiman Alsafouri

Development of a Collaborative Process Mapping Activity to Improve Students' BIM Process Mapping Understanding

Abstract: The use of BIM has become increasingly common, which has led to a growing demand for construction professionals with BIM knowledge and skills. BIM education is a solution to meet this growing need. Prior research suggests students associate BIM with a software solution rather than as a process illustrating a need to modify the current educational paradigms. This paper explores a pedagogical approach to developing BIM process planning skills among construction students. The research extends the findings of prior work that tasked students with developing process maps in a peer-reviewed context. This current iteration of the research explores the use of a collaborative, team-based, activity to generate Level 1 and Level 2 process maps, as defined by a previously published BIM Project Execution Planning Guide. The students were asked to create the process maps individually at first, and then again in groups of three. Pre- and post-questionnaires were given to analyse the studentsŐ perception of their knowledge. The primary objective of the research was to elicit a perception based response with respect to (i) studentsŐ ability to create a process map, (ii) enhancing the learning process, and (iii) students' perception about their own knowledge of the BIM execution process. In addition to perception based questions, the authors made observational analysis of completed process maps. The studentsŐ confidence in their ability in creating a process mapping dialogue box appears to have increased because of the activity. However, the studentsŐ perception about their ability to arrange the activities in sequence and parallel and the ability to create process map did not have any significant improvement. Based on the questionnaires and the suggestions given, it can be concluded that in both activities, the students had difficulties understanding the process mapping language. Future research may address the implementation of new pedagogical methods, incorporating the findings identified in this research thereby improving the measurable outcome of the students understanding of Process Mapping specific to BIM implementation.

Keywords: BIM, BIM Process Mapping, BIM Education, Collaborative Activity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0061

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Ayer S,Messner J,Anumba C

ecoCampus: a new approach to sustainable design education

Abstract: Civil and architectural engineering education programs strive to prepare students to design built environments that will be used by society. Some of these built systems can be challenging for laypeople to visualize while learning the design process. This research focuses on improving the way that students visualize and engage with building design content through the creation of a novel educational tool for designing sustainable building elements. The tool prototype, called ecoCampus, is an educational game that uses augmented reality technology on a mobile computing platform. It allows users to visualize a possible building retrofit design in the context of an existing built space and also receive tailored feedback about their design. The prototype application was tested with 47 first-year architectural engineering students to better understand the benefit of this tool. The results of this implementation were analyzed and compared to the results of prior semesters’ students who were tasked with completing a similar retrofit design activity without the use of ecoCampus or a mobile computing device. This comparison suggests that students who completed the ecoCampus activity were more likely to complete multiple design iterations as well as experiment with materials other than those present in the existing wall, suggesting that ecoCampus may help to break the tendency toward design fixation. Additionally, students generally rated the experience as highly enjoyable, suggesting engagement with this teaching tool. Future work will implement the ecoCampus experience with students in several building-related majors to identify possible additional benefits that can be observed.

Keywords: ecoCampus,Simulation Game,Augmented Reality,Engineering Education,Situated Learning Theory

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Rahimi A. Rahman and Steven K. Ayer

Prevalent Issues in BIM-Based Construction Projects

Abstract: Adopting Building Information Modelling (BIM) can result in various potential benefits. Previous research has identified challenges related to implementing BIM in construction projects. However, such studies may not demonstrate the regularity of those challenges in different construction projects. Understanding the prevalent challenges in BIM-based construction projects can assist in educating students on the prospective challenges in their upcoming projects. This research analyses issue logs from an electrical contractor to answer the following questions: (1) What are the prevalent issues that occur in BIM-based construction projects? (2) What are the dominant causes of issues in BIM-based construction projects? Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are used to analyse the logs. The qualitative analysis involves performing thematic analysis to identify the themes of issues and causes of issues. Conversely, the quantitative analysis involves grouping and counting the logs using those themes to determine the prevalent issues and dominant cause of issues. The results suggest that the common causes of issues in the projects are people and process rather than technology. This research adds to the body of knowledge by determining the prevalent issues of BIM-based construction projects as well as the dominant causes of issues by analysing issue logs across different construction projects.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM), Construction Projects, Issues and Challenges, Issue Logs, Thematic Analysis

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0051

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Samuel Goodwin and Steven K. Ayer

Employing BIM Tools to Streamline Fabrication

Abstract: Previous research suggests that the building industry has lagged behind manufacturing industries in productivity. This research addresses this challenge by developing a methodology to facilitate prefabrication related to surface penetrations using commercially available Building Information Modeling tools. The simple proof of concept presented in this work illustrates that this approach can provide useful and reliable fabrication information that can be applied to several trades or machine types. In this study, Revit, Dynamo, and other office tools were used to extract and manipulate the desired data. The applications were built, tested, and verified for countertop surface penetrations because countertops rarely have the exact same penetration layout for different projects. Therefore, there is typically a need to manually calculate locations for penetrations. The proof of concept developed in this work was able to instantly determine critical design parameters and calculate relevant penetration locations for fabricators. The accuracy of the outputted values was manually verified. While this particular application might only save a few minutes of a fabricatorŐs time because of the simple design example explored, there could be potential to save more time on more complex designs, which would take longer to manually calculate.

Keywords: Prefabrication, BIM, Dynamo, Revit

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0048

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Suleiman Alsafouri and Steven K. Ayer

A Step-By-Step Procedure for Implementing Mixed Reality Visualization Interfaces in Design and Constructability Review Sessions

Abstract: In modern construction projects, architects, engineers, and designers use different methods of construction visualization to support the conceptualization and final appearance of design ideas. This includes the use of virtual Building Information Modelling (BIM) content, as well as physical mock-ups to support design visualization for decision-making prior to construction. Prior research has demonstrated a variety of benefits that BIM can provide for visualization. Mixed Reality (MR) may be able to offer some of the benefits of both purely physical mock-ups and purely virtual BIM walkthroughs. However, the prior studies used specific computing devices and MR applications for specific construction use-cases. The goals were to solve a specific problem, or to prove the concept that MR is possible for various uses. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the exact same MR environment that could run on different computing devices. This will allow for identification of the differences between different computing devices running the exact same MR environment. This paper presents a consistent methodology for leveraging existing BIM contents to generate marker-based MR environments on various commercially available computing devices. This study tests the methodology for development and validates it through successfully building and running the same MR environment on various devices. Additionally, challenges associated with implementing this visualization mode in design and constructability review sessions were highlighted. The research questions addressed include: 1) What are the steps needed for developing MR visualisation interfaces in design and constructability review sessions? and 2) What are the possible constraints that may influence MR performance on different mobile computers? The conclusion from this study will help researchers better understand the process for MR implementation and the limitations in using this visualization environment. Additionally, it may help to expand the use of MR interfaces for different construction use-cases.

Keywords: Mixed Reality, Mixed Reality Markers, Design and Constructability Review Session, Construction Technology, and Construction Visualization

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0147

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