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D. Ye & T. Froese

A Unified Construction Project Management Arena

Abstract: To address the severe problem of information fragmentation in the construction industry, significant effort has gone into developing information interoperability techniques based on shared project data models. As a result, a wide range of software applications are able to exchange project information, resulting in significant efficiency and coordination improvements. Here, we extend this trend further, exploring the role of an information integrator system that allows users to work directly with the combined set of project information. An information integrator would work in conjunction with traditional applications, allowing users to create user-defined, multi-dimensional data views from the combined project data model, tailored to suit the needs of specific work tasks. In this way, users can maximize the benefit of the combined data model and enhance their ability to deal with the data interdependencies. This paper presents a technical framework for an information integrator for construction project management. It describes the requirements and technical solutions to achieve the necessary integration and flexibility at three layers of system architecture: the data layer, the application logic layer, and the presentation layer. Finally, it describes a prototype information integrator system called the Unified Construction Project Management Arena.

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Full text: content.pdf (173,645 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Fang C F, Froese T

Cost estimation of high performance concrete (hpc) high-rise commercial buildings by neural networks

Abstract: Neural network approach is applied to establish relationships between the quantities/cost of the concrete/formwork, which is required for the structural elements of tall buildings using high performance concrete (HPC), and the design variables. Hybrid and hierarchical strategies are proposed for the cost estimation, where the feed-forward networks are adopted. After training, the neural networks are utilized to predict automatically the quantities/cost of HPC wall-frame structures in tall commercial buildings. Verifications are conducted with respect to various sets of the design parameters and a comprehensive discussion is given.

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Full text: content.pdf (441,813 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.077873) class.economic (0.017519) class.communication (0.013234)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Fischer M, Froese T

Integration through standard project models

Abstract: Integration of data and knowledge among project participants andtheir computer applications holds the promise to improve the quality and efficiency of the project delivery process in the AEC industry. Wepropose that integration can be achieved by sharing a standard project model. In this paper, we describe such models. We summarize two research projects that developed and used shared project models and we outline essential characteristics of these models.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,108,261 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.012837) class.synthesis (0.012492) class.legal (0.008697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Froese T M, Yu K Q

Industry foundation class modeling for estimating and scheduling

Abstract: Industry Foundation Classes (IFCs) developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) are general models of a building project that support project information sharing and exchange among different types of computer applications used in the project. The IFCs are developed based on the information requirements from industry processes. The Project Management Domain Committee of IAI's North America Chapter has developed process models of cost estimating, scheduling, and their integration for the purpose of generating the IFCs to support data sharing throughout estimating and scheduling applications. The goal of this paper is to present the models relevant to estimating and scheduling in the IFCs. The paper discusses various modelling issues covering subjects such as costs, construction processes, resources, products, and project documents for work plans and cost estimates.

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Full text: content.pdf (96,047 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.070183) class.standards (0.028891) class.represent (0.025646)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Froese T, Fischer M, Grobler F, Ritzenthaler J, Yu K, Sutherland S, Staub S, Akinci B, Akbas R, Koo B, Barron A, Kunz J

Industry Foundation Classes for Project Management - A Trial Implementation

Abstract: An effort is underway to develop Industry Foundation Classes--industry-standard data structures for exchanging information about construction projects. In addition to physical information about buildings, these classes represent project management information such as estimating and scheduling data. Many core concepts relating to the project management portions of the Industry Foundation Classes have recently been added to these models, but these have received virtually no testing and implementation to date. A workshop was held to work through an implementation and evaluation exercise for these models. The results identified many areas for potential improvement, but also confirmed that the overall approach taken by the models worked well for representing and integrating product, work process, estimating, and scheduling information.

Keywords: International Alliance for Interoperability, IAI, Industry Foundation Classes, IFC, Project Management, Estimating, Scheduling, Project Modelling, Data Standards, Integration

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1999/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1999 (browse)
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Froese T, Grobler F

Developing data standards for construction--An IAI perspective

Abstract: This paper will discuss the potential role of information technologies (IT) in general and data standards in particular for improving work within the construction industry. As an example, it will focus on the work of the Project Management Domain Group of the North American Chapter of the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI/NA). The paper will have two main parts. The first part will focus on describing a vision for how IT can improve the construction industry. The role of data standards within this overall vision will be discussed. The paper will look briefly at the "tangle" of emerging standards, and will examine the role of data standards relative to research effort, relative to software development, and relative to end users. Having positioned data standards within the overall outlook for IT in the construction industry, the second main part of the paper will focus on one particular data standards effort as an example, that of the Project Management Domain Group of the IAI/NA. The work of this group will be presented. First, the paper will describe the development methodology followed by the group. Second, the paper will give an overview of the specific data standards projects underway within the Project Management group. Both authors are directly involved in the activities of the IAI/NA (one is the group chair) as well as being active researchers in the area of IT for the construction industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (68,651 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.032358) class.communication (0.011190) class.synthesis (0.009961)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Froese T, Q YU K, Liston K, Fischer M

System architectures for AEC interoperability

Abstract: "This paper discusses several issues relating to computational system architectures to support interoperability among distributed, model-based AEC/FM applications. The approach is based on tiered layers where applications interact with local “Building Objects” software components that, in turn, interact with a variety of distributed data repository alternatives in a data layer. International Foundation Classes (IFCs) models are used as the primary data model in each of the layers and communication between layers uses several XML standards. One issue is an approach to multiple meta-models within the many components of a distributed system. IFCs focus on strongly-typed models that describe AEC concepts and objects in an explicit manner. One of the requirements for applications that implement IFCs is that they must understand the semantics of the IFCs and map the IFC models to the application internal application models. However, software applications used in AEC processes are not always based on an internal model that can be explicitly mapped to a strongly-typed model such as the IFCs at development stage. Instead, it is common that some of the applications are either purely generic without an explicitly defined domain schema, or generic enough so as they must deal with run-time databases whose schemas cannot be pre-defined during the development of the applications. In order to allow this type of software to share and exchange data with other applications through the models such as the IFCs, data schemas must be mapped at a higher and abstract level that allows for run-time model schema configurations and mappings. The Interactive Workspace for Project Management (IWPM) is a CIFE (Center for Facilities Engineering) project that integrates several research decision support systems, commercial project management systems, and advanced collaborative human-computer interaction approaches using emerging industry data standards and internet technologies. To illustrate an example of using the meta-model approach, the paper applies the use cases in IWPM to demonstrate how meta-models can be used to implement IFC project management related models in such an integrated software environment."

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Full text: content.pdf (595,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.049095) class.standards (0.036666) class.communication (0.035658)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Froese T

Core process models and application areas in construction

Abstract: Integrated computer systems for the construction industry require high-level, general purpose core models of construction information to support information sharing. This paper introduces core models for building and construction, in particular an effort within the IS0 STEP organization. The paper then reviews several typical areas of computer applications for construction-planning and scheduling, estimating and cost control, and contract and document management-and discusses the implications of each application area on core models of construction processes.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,229,786 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.033698) class.processing (0.027371) class.communication (0.012054)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Ghanbari A, Froese T

Product modeling for construction management

Abstract: With the ever-increasing use of computer technologies for managing the information involved in business processes, information standardization has been identified as an important step towards improving the efficiency and effectiveness of these processes. Over the past two decades, many research and development projects have worked towards standardizing existing information in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. Many information models at different levels have been proposed and many prototypes have been developed. The major part of this effort has focused on modeling product information in AEC projects (as opposed to process, organizational, or other project information), and has concentrated on the designer's perspective. Our interest, however, is from the perspective of project managers. Although project management introduces a spectrum of process information that governs the act of constructing a project, the product information that describes the facility itself is still central. Yet this product information is not explicitly represented in existing project management software such as estimating and scheduling software. This paper outlines the dimensions of a research project aimed at product modeling for project management. It discusses some of the specific requirements of product models for the purpose of supporting project management functionality. The paper also describes a framework that has been devised for categorizing project management functions.

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Full text: content.pdf (153,603 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.039791) class.commerce (0.013965) class.software development (0.013423)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Gorlick A L, Froese T M

A prototype distributed CIC system based on IAI standards

Abstract: A prototype Computer Integrated Construction system is being developed that models building product and process information using International Alliance for Interoperability standards. The goal of this research is to provide a window into the future of how these standards can be applied in the construction industry. The prototype consists of a project database that is structured according to a common project schema or project data model. The schema is based on emerging International Alliance for Interoperability standard models but it is implemented in a way that allows the dynamic development of the schema (and even of its underlying metamodel) without destroying the information in the database in order to support on-going work in the development of information model standards. The system is modular in nature so that it can be supplemented with plug-in tools to accomplish a variety of project management tasks. It is served over the web through a combination of Microsoft's Active-X Data Object technology and a lightweight version of ISO STEP's Standard Data Access Interface. Data sets served to the client are wrapped in the Extensible Markup Language to allow for the self-description of information.

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Full text: content.pdf (77,627 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.068367) class.man-software (0.047366) class.standards (0.016356)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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