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Furusaka S, Kaneta T, Ohta M, Yamada K, Taira T

Development and management of a quality information system on construction site

Abstract: Many kinds of quality information are daily produced and shared among the engineers in a construction site. These information, usually stored in hand-written document or electric files, are not well reused for improvement of the project in the latter stages. This paper presents a method of sharing quality information to manage the useful knowledge created in the construction process. The supervisor gives written instruction about correction and approval as regards to the report from the construction manager. Agenda is processed in every meeting held weekly. These documents contain the knowledge of the supervisor, construction manager, and site engineers. The authors offered an electric format to memorize the quality information and developed a BBS system on the web to share the information in the project through the Internet. An application to a real building project will be also reported.

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Full text: content.pdf (291,473 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.026218) class.store (0.012650) class.man-man (0.006533)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Hand, J.W. and Higgs, F.S.

EDT: An Expert Adviser for Energy Design of Passive and Conventional Buildings at the Sketch Design Phase

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Full text: content.pdf (930,438 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Harvey S, Marache M, Samad Kazi A, Rezgui Y, Zarli A, Hemio T

Web-based generic services for the construction virtual enterprises in the OSMOS project

Abstract: The challenge addressed by the OSMOS[1] project is to provide construction participants with effective access to project information regardless of its form, format, and location, and on the other hand with increased flexibility to support smooth co-operation between non co-located teams, and the co-ordination of their work and activities in an environment that promotes trust and social cohesion. Driven by requirements specified by industrial partners, OSMOS aims at focusing on the specification of industry requirements including intra- and inter-company information process models, identification of required tools, interfaces and services for the Virtual Enterprise (VE), specification of construction groupware services including system architecture, interfaces and necessary extensions to common construction applications. The OSMOS consortium is developing two Internet-based prototype groupware services, hosted in Finland and France, including low entry tools for accessing project information in a VE. The latter include browsers for accessing distributed project information, tools for quick set up of the infrastructure for a new VE, and tools for typical asynchronous communication. The paper will give, first, a general background on the Information and Communication Technology use in construction, with an emphasis on IT tools supporting team work. This will be followed by a summary of the requirements of the OSMOS system based on the analysis of the current practices within the participating companies. These requirements form the base of the OSMOS specification, comprising a set of information models as well as a set of services packaged in the form of an OSMOS Application Programming Interface. The paper will then concentrate on 2 of the following services: the e-mail based communication service, and the document cross-referencing/information management service, selected as specific targets for the 1st iteration of the OSMOS project. The objective of the e-mail based communication service is to provide users with mechanisms for exchanging electronic information and messages, examples of which include electronic letters, e-mail, documents, etc., and generalised functionality archiving messages within the VE, search and get email addresses according to specified criteria, and so on. The second service (document cross-referencing/information management ) is to provide users with mechanisms to relate any particular nugget of information with other information to which it relates based on its semantics (meaning), regardless of its actual form and storage format. The paper then proceeds with a detailed overview of the application and potential of the web-based generic services for construction virtual enterprises in the OSMOS project. A demonstration of the initial web-based versions of the “Virtual Enterprise Management system” (VEM) and the OSMOS information browser is then presented. The VEM, as the name implies, manages a VE in terms of registering, modifying and deleting users, roles, access rights, classes, objects, services/methods, etc.. More functionality will be added for security, authentication, session management, logging facility, etc. The OSMOS browser on the other hand communicates with the VEM and serves as the main user interface presenting different views to the project data and through these views makes available invokable methods for individual objects based on user roles, rights, and view preferences. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the results presented in this paper though targeted towards the construction industry are in fact generic enough to be translated to other industry sectors. The project is supported by 4 user interest groups in Finland, France, Sweden, and UK.

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Full text: content.pdf (288,277 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.049106) class.software development (0.041176) class.man-software (0.039832)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Ipek Gursel, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz

A computational framework for integration of performance information during the building lifecycle

Abstract: Optimal indoor environments in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality are essential to maintain healthy and productive spaces. To address the high occupant comfort and energy efficiency requirements, advanced HVAC systems that have narrow performance boundaries are used. It is crucial to achieve the satisfactory operational level for systems and buildings by the adoption of performance based verification strategies. Performance-based approach requires the continuous verification of the actual performance against objectives during the building lifecycle. Building commissioning, building energy management systems (BEMS) and operations and main-tenance are effective tools to verify optimum building performance and have the potential to embed performance as-sessment into the building lifecycle. However, transfer of performance information from one method or building phase to another is difficult. A considerable amount of valuable information is lost due to the lack of an integrated framework that bridges different islands of information. This becomes most problematic during the operational phase, where de-sign data and performance trends are the main basis for decision making for facilities management staff. To achieve a persistent performance evaluation across phases and stakeholders, a flexible and seamless communication infrastruc-ture across disciplines and processes is necessary. The software architecture for a continuous performance verification and communication environment for indoor cli-mate and ventilation systems is introduced. The purpose of the model is to provide a framework that integrates commis-sioning, BEMS monitoring and inspection/maintenance activities, to avoid erosion of domain information during hand-overs and over time. The model retains continual information of building and makes this information available during building operations and [re]commissioning. A formal relationship structure is proposed between performance indices to support traceability of design and operations decisions. The paper will be concluded with reflections into the future work, which includes implementation and proposed strategies for validation of the model by test cases.

Keywords: building lifecycle performance assessment, building commissioning, BEMS

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Full text: content.pdf (741,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Ito K, Kano Y

3-D graphical simulation for crane planning using object-orientedbuilding product model

Abstract: Temporary Facilities are the most expensive resources at a constructionsite. In particular, the selection, positioning, planning and operation of acrane for a construction site control influences the overall constructionplanning and selection of the combination of construction methods. InJapan, at most construction sites around or inside the large city, craneoperation is one of the big issues in determining the combination ofconstruction methods because of the site constraint restrictions.Therefore, the utilization of a crane directly influences theconstructability and productivity of its related construction operations. Itis also important for a construction planner, or construction manager, toconsider and to evaluate the construction work plans, and constructioncosts. This is so that they provide for the safety of the laborers, reducingconstruction costs, and maintaining the quality of the facilities. Duringthe crane planning, any possible lack of equipment power and/orresource bottlenecks, should be identified.On the other hand, an object-oriented product model is very powerful indescribing each building element as an object, including its attributes forthe crane simulation. Especially for the selection and positioning of thecrane for a construction operation, the loading ability of the crane orinterference between the elements and boom of the crane should beevaluated by using the location and attributes of building elements, suchas the weight of elements or materials of elements. Therefore, theauthors propose the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning,with an object-oriented building product model.This paper presents the development, present status and future directionsof the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning using theobject-oriented building product model. The work described in this paperis still in progress. The paper will conclude with a layout of future plansfor 3-D graphical simulation systems as the tool of virtual construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (211,278 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Karstila K, Pehrsson R

SteelBase - implementing product data exchange for constructional steelwork

Abstract: The paper describes the results from the Finnish SteelBase project in implementing standardised product data exchange for construction. The application area of the project is the exchange of constructional steelwork data from the structural designers to the fabricators. The enabling technologor the project are STEP product data technology emerging from ISO TC184/SC4 work, and the results from the European CIMsteel-project. The paper describes SteelBase by the methodologies used, developed implementation, and the achieved results and firseriences in constructional steelwork data exchange. Introduction The Finnish FINNSTEEL technology program aims at the promotion of steel construction in general, and more specifically at the decreasing of building costs and project lead times. The objective of SteelBase, a project within the FINNSTEEL framework, articular is to develop and implement neutral data exchange for constructional steelwork between the structural designers and the fabricators. Neutral, standard-based, product data exchange streamlines the information logistics of the design/manufacturing process, and increases the possibilities to exploit the design data in the downstream activities, like production planning. The enabling technologies The SteelBase basis its work on two efforts, namely ISO STEP standardisation work and European CIMsteel/Eureka -project. STEP product data technology (Standard for The Exchange of Product model data) has been developed over the years as an international standardisation effort in ISO TC184/SC4 Industrial Data committee. STEP technology is a comprehensive set of methods, standards and tools for realising the neutral exchange of product model data between computer applications. CIMsteel-project has defined a data exchange specification, so-called CIMsteel Integration Standards (CIS), for the exchange of constructional steelwork product data. In its developments CIMsteel has, on the other hand used STEP product data technolond on the other hand the CIS-standard will form the basis for the development of an international STEP data exchange standard or Application Protocol for constructional steelwork (AP 230). SteelBase status In its first phase SteelBase: 1) defined a data exchange specification based on CIS with some additional Finnish flavouring for e.g. section profiles and materials identification; 2) defined standard report types for constructional steelwork designs;3) developed a computer application, StBrowser, which is a general purpose browser for constructional steelwork product models. StBrowser allows for view and editing of steelwork product models, bill-of-materials report generation and conversions of the data into some additional data formats. StBrowser serves for the receiving of steelwork product data, and its exploitation.g. production planning and manufacturing by the fabricator. In the current, second phase of SteelBase the focus of the development is in expanding the usage of SteelBase data exchange by implementing additional data conversion facilities to the StBrowser, e.g. for the numerical control of machine tools. Also, EDIFACT and VRML converters are under consideration.

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Full text: content.pdf (252,085 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.038700) class.software-software (0.026935) class.impact (0.015014)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Kenji Ito

Domain specific model for integmted schedule related information and safety information

Abstract: During the various phases of the A/E/C life cycle, several kinds of project data will be generated, shared, and updated by many project participants. In particular, these participants will store and retrieve the schedule information according to their needs. This is the due to the fact that the schedule information is subject to several kinds of project constraints. Therefore, many researchers have been attempting to realize the object-oriented integrated environment for linking CAD and planning or scheduling systems, or the knowledge-based expert systems for planning and scheduling. On the other hand, at the construction planning and consthction management stage, safety management is a one of the key issues in avoiding the delay of construction work. Therefore, Shimizu Corporation has been developing an accident prevention system. This paper describes the development, present status and future directions for the integrated environment between scheduling information, and an accident prevention system using domain specific models in Shimizu Corporation.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,026 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.021930) class.software development (0.017461) class.environment (0.017214)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Kiiski M

Product model based software for structural design

Abstract: Tekla Oy is developing a software package called Xbuild for the design and detailing of steel and concrete structures. The development focuses on two main areas: steel structure design and design of reinforced concrete structures. Accordingly, Xbuild consists of two main parts: Xsteel and Xconcrete software modules. The basic idea behind the Xbuild is to build a logical product model of the steel concrete structure. This product model is stored in a relational database and it is created by using sophisticated interactive 3D-modelling tools. All documentation needed for the manufacture and construction of the structure - drawings, material lists, NC-preprocessor files - can then be produced from the product model. Xsteel includes modelling tools for beams, columns, connections, plates, weldings, bolts and other components of a steel structure. Most of the standard components used in Finland and other European countries are stored in component libraries such as profile, connection and bolt libraries. The modelling is object-oriented, which makes the model "intelligent". Every component in the structure is an object in the product model database and objects can be connected to each other by certain rules. In practise this means that for instance when a beam is being moved, the adjoining joints will follow. Every object is stored in the database only once, which ensures the coherency of the database in all situations. The 3D-model, drawings and lists are just "views" to the database - all design modifications can only be made in the model. This way the user can be sure that all documentation of the model is always up to date. Xconcrete is based on the same principles as Xsteel. The main difference is that Xconcrete can also handle the reinforcement bars in an intelligent way by utilizing object-oriented techniques. The database structure of Xsteel and Xconcrete is relational. The contents of the database can be written out in any format specified by the user. This enables data transfer between Xbuild and any other product model based software. It is also possible to link other applications, such as strength analysis and dimensioning, production planning and cost calculation, to Xsteel by using an open linking inter- face. In addition to this, the Xbuild software modules include tools for creating user specified macros - a feature that enables users to develop own Xbuild "applications". Today Xsteel is used by several engineering and steelwork companies in Finland as well as abroad. Xconcrete is still partially under development and will be completed in the near future. As the construction process, codes of praxis etc. differ a lot in different countries, the requirements set on the software vary quite much from one country to another. Therefore the software has to be easy to adapt into different design environments. The results gained by the users show that the product model based approach is radically improving the productivity and quality of the design work. On the other hand it is clear that using a sophisticated product model based design software sets new requirements for the designers and manufacturers of structures.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,306,080 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.036567) class.represent (0.028935) class.analysis (0.028125)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Kjeld Svidt, Per Christiansson

REQUIREMENTS ON 3D BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION – EXPERIENCES FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITION

Abstract: In 2007 the public clients in Denmark started implementing new requirements on information handling in their construction projects. In the full implementation they will demand that all construction data on public construction projects are digitally managed and interchanged. Tendering shall be effected electronically over the Internet. Design will be based on 3D building models, which are gradually specified to reach different levels of detail. The parties involved in a specific construction project must share and interchange data and documents about the construction project on a common document management system accessed through the Internet. When a construction project is finished, the parties will hand over relevant operation and maintenance data electronically to the client. Detailed requirements have been developed on behalf of the public clients within four main areas: 3D models, Digital Tendering, Project Webs and Digital Handover. Within each of these areas, initial requirements have been tested in specific construction projects. This paper describes experiences from the test of the suggested requirements on 3D models. The requirements were used in an architectural competition on modernizing a cluster of university buildings. Four selected architects were invited to the competition. The proposals from the architects should be prepared as a 3D model in IFC format supplemented with a number of 3D visualizations chosen by the individual architects.

Keywords: 3D building models, BIM, electronic communication, requirements, architectural competition

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Full text: content.pdf (285,444 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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LimY M, Rashid A A Z, Ang C N, Wong C Y, Wong S L

A survey of Internet usage in the Malaysian construction industry

Abstract: In recent years, the construction industry in Malaysia seems to be using the Internet as much as other industries. However, what is the actual level of Internet usage in the construction industry and what are the perceived benefits and disadvantages experienced by the users? A survey was conducted to find the answers to the questions. Based on the survey, it was found that the respondents have accessibility to the Internet; comparable to countries such as the United States. However, the main use of the Internet is only for emails and information search. Use of the Internet for online bidding and e-meetings are almost negligible. The good news is, for those using the Internet, they experienced time and cost savings as well as increased in efficiency. On the other hand, the survey found that most of the disadvantages experienced are slowness in downloading, virus problem and frequency of being cut-off from Internet connection. As such, it is recommended that the relevant parties in the industry should look into provision of sufficient infrastructure and IT skills training to enable the workers in this industry to fully utilise the potential of the Internet instead of just implementing basic automation.

Keywords: Benefits, Construction Industry, Disadvantages, Internet, Malaysia, Website

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/17 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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