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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Borrmann, Y. Ji, I.-C. Wu, M. Obergrießer, E. Rank, C. Klaubert & W. Günthner

ForBAU – The virtual construction site project

Abstract: The paper introduces the Bavarian research cluster ForBAU which has been launched in January 2008 with the aim of an improved planning and management of construction sites, especially in infrastructure projects. To realize this goal, the research cluster focuses on developing a virtual representation of the construction site which involves all essential aspects, including models of the buildings under construction, the environmental boundary conditions, the construction procedure, the logistics processes, and the required resources. The resulting virtual construction site forms one the one hand the basis for simulating the construction process, which allows to identify critical aspects of the construction project in advance and to adapt the resources and the scheduling accordingly. On the other hand, the holistic virtual representation of the real construction site is used during the execution phase to capture all available information about the project – enabling site managers, controllers and engineers to get a detailed overview on its progress and identify potential problems in an early stage.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,199,024 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Aleš Mrkela & Danijel Rebolj

Automated construction schedule creation using project information model

Abstract: In this paper we will propose a method of using a project information model (PIM) for creating construction schedules. In the paper we will briefly review current available scheduling possibilities, which use combination of BIM and scheduling software. We realized that BIM lacks user specific data that is vital for proper schedule creation and has, on the other hand, too complex structure and software tools for planning personnel to understand. Through the use of simple 3D model viewer, user specific data and BIM, we are proposing a novel approach of schedule estimation in construction, which we call project information model (PIM). PIM is the process that is based on internal logics, that creates the estimated schedule and resource usage. After the PIM process, the automatically created schedule is included in BIM and made available to project managers and other construction stakeholders, to coordinate and carry out activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (279,466 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Alonso J M, Alvarruiz F, Hernandez V, Vidal A M

HPC in the building construction sector

Abstract: In the context of the HIPERCOSME project (1) (ESPRIT project 20059), the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) in collaboration with Spanish partners, developed a new High Performance Computing (HPC) demonstrator to calculate Reinforced Concrete Building Structures. Starting from a sequential software package, the objective of that project was to develop a portable parallel software package, able to cope with large scale problems and more realistic models (more information could be obtained in http://wwwcopa.dsic.upv.es/copa_eng.html). The performance of the prototype was analysed by means of a test battery composed of 4 real buildings. The performance of the prototype was compared to that of the original sequential package, showing that the former was from 20 up to 60 times faster than the latter. Besides, since a trial and error process must be carried out, the best and cheapest structural solution can be obtained. This leads to a reduction of the cost of the constructive elements and an increase in safety. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the code performance, a 3D approach to the problem of computing the building structure can be performed. Hardware and software requirements for this prototype are very common.The parallel platform can be a cluster of Ethernet linked PC's running under an easily available operating system such as LINUX (public domain) and the PVM passing message environment (public domain also). Moreover, the application is portable and can be run on other computers and parallel systems. Thus, in the context of the project, five Workshops were organised to promote the results in the European regions where the project partners belonged to. In these Workshops, Demonstration Actions were carried out with the presence of different small and medium size construction enterprises of each region. Co-operation among the partners led to contacts with new construction companies interested in the HPCN framework. As a consequence, six Assessment Studies were developed with European construction companies from Spain, Portugal, France and Greece, in order to understand the needs of the European market. UPV is the Valencian Community node of HIPERTTN. This technological Transfer Node is part of the METIER action in the HPCN PST activities of the IV ESPRIT Programme. TTN's try to stimulate the technology transfer and dissemination of the results of the HPCN projects in Europe. As a consequence, a Construction Sector Group has been recently created in this TTN Network. In the full paper, we will describe the technical work developed in the project, both from the point of view of the computational tools and the experience of transference of technology to the Construction Sector.

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Full text: content.pdf (51,870 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.030939) class.bestPractise (0.026703) class.communication (0.025338)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alshawi M, Aouad G, Child T, Faraj I, Underwood J

The implementation of the industry foundation classes in integrated environments

Abstract: Integrated Computer Environments have been the subject for research for many years. Among others, the issue of exchanging and sharing data between project participants has been their major concern. International initiative has been set up for this purpose Mainly STEP and the IAI/IFCs initiative. The latter aims to produce standard data models for the building industry to facilitate the exchange of data between all partners involved along the project life cycle. On the other hand, the large increase in the Web usage has made the large software vendors such as Microsoft, IBM, SUN, etc. to produce standards for data communication for client-server applications. These attempts have resulted in the production of the CORBA-ORB (Object Request Broker Architecture - Object Request Broker) which has been recommended by the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Microsoft ActiveX. These standards have facilitated the development of distributed objects environments where users can exchange data from and to different servers without knowing where the objects are store. This is an important concept if the implementation of integrated construction environment is to be successful. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of a large research project which is being carried out, by the AIC (Automation and Integration in Construction) research group, at the University of Salford. Based on the Salford’s previous experience in the development of integrated environments, such as SPACE and OSCON. This project is adopting international standards in data models and communication protocols. The IFCs have been used as the core data model and has been implemented in a three-tier architecture using CORBA-ORB as its communication standards. The proposed environment adopts open standards and focuses on using existing Internet technology. The project aims to: 1. Test the state of the art technologies and recently emerging standards such as CORBA and IFC, 2. Define and select the necessary software components for the integrated environment, 3. Develop an architecture of this environment which will be implemented with the selected software components, 4. Develop a number of use-cases and scenarios to gain an insight on how such an environment can be used by the Construction Industry professionals.

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Full text: content.pdf (155,922 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-software (0.049906) class.environment (0.031651) class.processing (0.030486)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Anshuman S, Kumar B

Architecture and HCI: a review of trends towards an integrative approach to designing responsive space

Abstract: Recently, trends in integrating dynamism and response in Computer Aided Architectural Design have been in vogue. Attempts to attach dynamic forces to vector objects and thereby breeding amorphous elements and responsive environments are demonstrated through numerous design proposals in recent times, where design concepts are represented as active systems of forces affecting CAD objects; turning them into responsive amorphous organisms. This intention is compromised once such active forms are translated into built objects from the simulations, which largely remain inert. On the other hand, recent concepts in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and pervasive computing, have demonstrated relevance in physical objects and spaces; turning them into elements of physical interface to mediate particular human actions, aspects of communication, entertainment and aesthetic expression. While responsiveness grows as a concern amongst architects, allowing HCI features and computational schemes to become integral processes and parameters within architectural design may provide design processes with new approaches to architectural production. This may, in turn, alter the resultant architectural schemes and their behavior. This paper reviews relevant developments that contribute to such potential to inform physically responsive environments and scopes their integration in heterogeneous architectural design processes.

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Full text: content.pdf (319,733 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Bedard C

The validation of integrated CAD in building engineering design

Abstract: The need and the urgency to develop integrated CAD software for building design are well established in industry and academia alike. The means and the approach to achieve this objective are however not soclear and do not meet with general agreement. Even the final product itself - integrated CAD - has different meanings for different people.Like other research groups in building studies, we have developed a number of integrated building design systems in the last few years thateffectively combine different activities and types of expertise in a unified approach. For these successful research initiatives, the fundamental issue of validation remains a very difficult one to answer properly. On the one hand, reference cases do not exist to benchmark the operation of an integrated system, as in the case of experimental or empirical processes. On the other hand, no clear guidelines have emergedyet from commercial software developers in the construction industry that claim to have achieved 'integrated CAD' as soon as some form of file transfer exists between an application software and a CAD package.From the study of some integrated CAD systems for building design recently developed in industry and at the CBS, this paper will attempt tocircumscribe the main aspects of the validation issue, e.g. what are the characteristics of integrated CAD ? what kind of performance is expected from such systems ? are current systems delivering what building design practitioners need ?

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Full text: content.pdf (426,635 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.020523) class.education (0.013759) class.synthesis (0.011254)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Bowden S, Thorpe A, Baldwin A

Usability testing of hand held computing on a construction site

Abstract: Unless current hand-held computers are found to be usable by site-based personnel the uptake of these new systems will be slow regardless the benefits available to these individuals and the project team as a whole. The technology to extend IT solutions to personnel in the field is available, but there is a preconception that site personnel are not IT literate and therefore will not be able, or willing, to take full advantage of the benefits that IT tools bring. This paper presents a methodology for assessing usability, describes the usability testing of hand held computers by site workers and concludes that this type of device will meet their needs.

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Full text: content.pdf (313,188 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Bügler M,Dori G,Borrmann A

Swap based process schedule optimization using discrete-event simulation

Abstract: Large construction projects usually involve many tasks, which are connected through dependencies and usage of common resources and materials. Determining the optimal order of task execution is in most of the cases impossible to do by hand. Therefore different methods for automatic optimization of large process schedules using a discrete-event simulation system were investigated. This paper introduces a new heuristic method for the resource constrained project scheduling problem, called swap-based optimization. Compared to creating an optimal schedule from scratch, the swap approach facilitates obtaining metrics about the performance of the result, before having worked through the entire construction process. Swaps are introduced into the simulation model by assigning priorities to the tasks. After running a simulation a list of possible swaps is created. Applying one of them and restarting the simulation will introduce a change into the sequence of the tasks within the schedule, generating a different schedule than the one before. Different tree search algorithms, traversing the space of possible swaps throughout a construction process, were analyzed. The suitability of the method is proven by an extensive case study.

Keywords: Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem,Project Schedule Optimization,Discrete-event Simulation,Task Swaps,Construction Site,Tree search

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Full text: content.pdf (392,459 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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