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S Komorowski & V Berkhahn

Neural networks in the re-engineering process based on construction drawings

Abstract: In this paper an approach is presented to digitize a drawing, to build up geometric and topologic models, to recognise construction parts and to interpret dimension lines and inscriptions. All recognized parts are transformed into a three-dimensional geometric model which provides all necessary geometric information for a product model. The recognition process of construction parts is based on a line search and topologi-cal analysis, which are not suitable for the recognition of drawing inscriptions and hand writings. Therefore, the information of dimension inscriptions has to be neglected in former case studies. Because dimension inscriptions deliver significant information about the dimensions of construction parts, a neural Kohonen network is implemented and adapted in order to recognise inscription text. Finally the gained information about dimensions is related to significant details of construction parts.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Salim M D

A cad-integrated process planning system for the design, fabrication and assembly of reinforcing steel

Abstract: The fast advancement of computer technology has greatly benefited the industry in general. In particular manufacturing has embraced the benefits of computers to control production processes which is directly interfaced with computer aided design and drafting software. The construction industry, on the other hand, has yet to realii the full spectrum of potential gains that can be derived from the use of computer. However, the construction industry is currently experiencing a marked increase in the introduction of automated methods to improve productivity. One area where drastic improvements in productivity can be expected through computer integrated system is the fabrication and assembly of reinforcing steel in construction. This paper presents new concepts for feature-based design and process planning, a key element of computer-integrated construction (CIC). The work discnssed in this paper includes the establishment of feature based design within AutoCAD. It is integrated with a database and the LEVEL5 OBJECT software. AutoLISP programs were written to support the feature based detail design of an object. LEVEL5 OBJECT combines expert system technologies and object-oriented programming. Finally, the paper presents the CAD-integrated process planning system linked with a reinforcing steel fabrication facility for automated fabrication operations.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Sarbach A

Standards and communication systems in construction planning

Abstract: A planning team today has to cope with new boundary conditions. On the one hand, these are the economic situation and structural changes in the building trade, and, on the other hand, the new technical possibilities in the planning process and in the area of communications. The standards and communication systems compiled as part of our project support both aspects. Through a uniform document management, a legal basis and the standardization of the drawings time is saved avoiding a multiple processing of the same plan documents. The standards are take into account the use of modern and direct communications and tools. The data occurring is structured and organized during the planning period, so that it can be further used in the operating phase of a building. The Engineering Data Management System manages the organizational standards and controls the different communication systems used. Thus both components are united in a single method. An essential part of our project is the development of this program. My article describes firstly the Standards, then the different communication systems and finally the developed Engineering Data Management System.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,797,760 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.042675) class.economic (0.041679) class.communication (0.033688)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


SM Holzer & F Geyer

Resources, Time & Money: Why project schedules simply don't work

Abstract: Construction of buildings is a very special kind of production because each product is generally produced only once, as an individual. Therefore, there is no means of an empirical assessment of cost as a function of resource deployment, time, and sequence of tasks, by way of experimentation as in the case of industrial mass production. On the other hand, buildings are very expensive, so that there is a great need for reliable cost estimation, estimate updates during construction, and cost analysis. Due to the lack of known, reliable functional relations between the key cost-relevant quantities, very coarse simplifications of the system need to be introduced. The contribution discusses ways to develop such simplified cost models, without rendering valueless the results obtained by such a model. We assume that the whole cost estimation process will be implemented into an overall schedule planning system, without introducing insurmountable overhead.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Soibelman L, Caldas C

Information logistics for construction inter-organizational systems

Abstract: "Recent advances in the area of communications, distributed computing, multimedia and information integration triggered new alternatives for construction management. Information technologies, like the Internet, distributed object management and other infrastructure and standards-based technologies, have been utilized to enhance the ability to integrate information from multiple sources. The American construction industry is adopting some of these technologies, in order to improve collaboration, coordination and information exchange among organizations that will work in a construction project. Among these technologies, project extranet is one that has been increasingly adopted. The introduction of project extranets by the American construction industry is not a radical technological innovation. Their development, in the adopted configuration, is based on the automation of existing organizational processes and workflows. The fact that it did not introduce significant changes is facilitating its adoption, even by the most traditional project members, in one industry that is considered very conservative. While this gradual process helped the acceptance of the project extranets by the construction industry, on the other hand it has presented information-related problems and also limited the potential of this information technology. Most of these problems and limitations are due to the fact that, traditionally, information systems were developed inside the scope of individual companies. Now boundaries between construction organizations have weakened and we need to develop methodologies and criteria to be adopted during the implementation and utilization of information systems to work in this new scenario. Networked information systems that are used by multiple construction organizations are called, in this paper, construction interorganizational information systems. This paper presents the advantages of applying an information logistics approach to support collaboration and coordination in construction interorganizational information systems. Information logistics is defined here as the maintenance, tracking, monitor and enactment of information flows between construction organizations. The objective of the development of an information logistics approach in construction is to enact and support interorganizational systems in order to assure that the accurate and relevant information will be on the right place at the appropriate time and with the required quality. The proposed information logistics approach is based on a three-step process. The first step involves mapping the existing construction process and its associate network of information flows in order to discover the interfaces among different construction information and identify information-related problems. The second step suggests the creation of metadata to be associated to each construction document. These metadata are supposed to add to the existing documents, additional data that would increase the quality of the information and also the ability to monitor, keep track, maintain and enact relevant construction information. The third step involves the development of a logistics system based on the knowledge and information obtained from the previous steps. This system is intended to become our prototype of a construction interorganizational information system."

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Full text: content.pdf (246,589 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.036923) class.man-man (0.015190) class.collaboration (0.010514)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Stouffs R, Tunįer B, Sariyildiz S

Empowering individuals to design and build collaborative information spaces

Abstract: Web-based project management applications serve project teams and virtual enterprises to manage project information anywhere, anytime. Central to these applications is an EDMS that enables team members to store and organize all project documents, independent of type and format. We consider two problems regarding the adoption and effective utilization of such systems. Firstly, the advantages of using an EDMS become apparent only after a relatively large collection of documents has been stored and organized in the system. Secondly, EDMS's currently offer little support for searching and retrieving information that straddles various documents. In order to address both problems, we propose a number of user abilities to add to current EDMS functionalities, offering the user increased freedom in locating and placing a document within a collaborative information space. We explore these abilities at the hand of two information environments: one developed for the Swiss AEC industry, the other currently under development as a common and extensible library for design precedents' analyses.

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Full text: content.pdf (358,232 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.048240) class.collaboration (0.015013) class.retrieve (0.015007)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Stylianos Karatzas and Athanasios Chassiakos

Building Information Modelling as a Cost Control Tool for Critical Chain Construction Project Management

Abstract: The Critical Path Method (CPM) has been used in the construction industry as a project planning and control tool for a long time, however, project delays and cost overruns still happen. Compared to CPM, Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) represents an improved management approach that focuses mostly on human behaviour and resource conflicts, addressing concepts like Student Syndrome, ParkinsonÕs Law and multitasking resolution. Additionally, CCPM simplifies project control and utilises buffers to reduce the risk of delay, bringing the project ahead of schedule without increasing costs. On the other hand, Building Information Modelling (BIM), being a methodology that enables enhanced and flexible management of construction project data within a virtual environment, could be exploited as a platform for the introduction of innovative project control methodologies into the construction management practices. This research aims to take advantage of BIM to support the implementation of Critical Chain Project Management methodology along the construction phase of a project. A framework for using BIM as a cost control tool to improve project buffer management is developed and analysed to facilitate the timely project execution and profit increase goals of the contractor.

Keywords: Critical Chain, Cost Control, Building Information Modelling, Project Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0228

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Ulrich Hartmann, Petra von Both

Metrics for the Analysis of Product Model Complexity

Abstract: Today we see several product model standards getting more and more corpulent by absorbing concepts of neighboring domains, but behind the good intentions of getting ‘complete’ the perils of complexity are lurk-ing. Raising computer power gives us the means of handling large digital models, but the overall situation resembles the scenery of the mid-1970ties, where the software industry ran into the so-called software cri-sis. Edsger Dijkstra put it quite bluntly: “as long as there were no machines, programming was no problem at all; when we had a few weak computers, programming became a mild problem, and now we have gigan-tic computers, programming has become an equally gigantic problem” . Pursuing traditional concepts with growing tool power may uncover structural deficits not anticipated before.It’s in the nature of complexity to have no single ‘magic’ number, representing the complexity of a general system, at hand. The comparison of systems complexity on a universal level is therefore next to impossible by definition. Models -and in our case product models- are an abstraction of the system they represent, re-ducing concepts of the real world to the necessary minimum. Complexity analysis on the reduced set of con-ceptual model elements can therefore be conducted down to a numerical level. Metrics for the assessment of software complexity and design quality have been proven in practice. The article gives a brief overview on complexity metrics, how to apply them to product models and possible strategies for keeping model complexity on a reasonable level. Different model standards will be analyzed, separating between logical complexity inherent to the problem domain and formal complexity imposed by the model notation. Due to the metrics presented, views on complexity can be structural, behavioral, quan-titative and even cognitive. As a conclusion, a line can be drawn between different aspects of model com-plexity and potential model acceptance.

Keywords: product model, complexity, metrics, IFC, CityGML

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Van Leeuwen J P, Fridqvist S

Supporting Collaborative Design by Type Recognition and Knowledge Sharing

Abstract: In collaborative design projects, designers are required to share and identify design knowledge, which is an aspect of design that can benefit significantly from formalisation of design knowledge. On the other hand, working with formalised design knowledge should not impede the creativity in design by restricting the design process and limiting the freedom of manipulating design information. The research project reported in this article provides an approach to design modelling that manifests a high level of flexibility and extendibility of the formalised design knowledge. The design process is supported in this approach by tools that help identify the design rationale through type recognition and by Internet-based services that allow designers to share design models and design knowledge in a well-structured manner.

Keywords: Design Support System, Collaborative Design, Feature-Based Modelling, Case-Based Reasoning, Internet Application.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/11 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Woestenenk K

Implementing the LexiCon for practical use

Abstract: "The LexiCon can be regarded as an Object Library for the construction industry, similar to STEPlib for the process industry, which is based on STEP part 221, and the POSC/CAESAR library for the off-shore industry. The model behind the LexiCon, however, is much simpler than the models of the other libraries, allowing for construction experts to take an active part in populating the LexiCon with objects which are of interest for the construction industry. The LexiCon has been introduced at several occasions: the ECPPM ’98 conference in Watford, UK, the ICIS Delegates Assembly 1999, Prague, the CEC99 conference in Espoo, Finland, as well as the IAI, ISO TC184/SC4 (STEP) and ISO TC59/SC13. SC13 earlier formulated the work item 12006-3 “Building construction – Organization of information about construction works – part 3: Framework for object oriented information exchange” and installed at its meeting in June 1999 in Vancouver Working Group 6 for this task. SC13 also established a ‘Standing Conference’ of interested parties on the subject, such as IAI, ICIS, ISO TC184/SC4/WG322, ISO TC10/SC8, CIB and aecXML. The Standing Conference had its first meeting in June 1999, in Vancouver and a second one in October 1999 in München, Germany. WG6 had its first meeting in October 1999, in Ede, The Netherlands. The LexiCon structure is accepted as a starting point for the proposed framework, together with the Epistle Version 3 model and the Swedish BAS-CAAD model. The idea behind the LexiCon is to provide a ‘common language’ for storing and exchanging data between applications, between participants in construction processes and between owners and users of products resulting from construction activities. This paper will discuss how applications can use the structure of the LexiCon as well as the contents. It will show that data about a ‘Built Object’ can be stored within the LexiCon structure troughout the whole lifetime of that Built Object, from brief, design, assembly and use till dismantling or demolishment. Doing so, broadens the meaning of the terms ‘brief’ to ‘demolishment’ from project-related to object-related, or in other words, it will show that these terms apply to the life stages of every single (Built) Object. On the other hand, applications will continue targeting distinct processes. Thus an application targeting the client’s brief for a building will differ from an application specifying the requirements of a curtain wall (which also could be regarded as a kind of client’s brief, but this time with the curtain wall as the subject), while still using the same data structure. Applications based on the LexiCon will instantiate the Built Object classes in the LexiCon or may instantiate their own classes derived from the LexiCon classes, using the LexiCon’s Functions and Quantity classes. Another usage of the LexiCon will be the provison of general information, such as building regulations, product information, cost data and quality assessments. Using the LexiCon will assure that for a single Built Object class all relevant data will be easy to find, as long as the application takes care of associating these data with that class."

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Full text: content.pdf (257,874 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.026535) class.man-man (0.025571) class.legal (0.013649)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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