A Grilo, R Jardim-Gonçalves & A Steiger-Garcao
Shifting the construction interoperability paradigm, in the advent of Service Oriented and Model Driven Architectures
Abstract: A major difficulty construction companies are currently facing is the lack of interoperability of software applications to manage and progress in their business. Organizations are being pressured up by new business relationships, driven for instance by new contractual challenges, which the exchange of information and documents with new partners are often incapable of being executed automatically and in electronic format. This is principally due to problems of incompatibility with the information representation adopted by the software applications they are working with. This problem arises not only during the project phase but also across the whole life cycle that includes operation and maintenance stages. In order to create the enabling conditions for the deployment of the electronic collaborative and commerce platforms it is fundamental to understand the variables that may influence its development, and how they determine the configuration of the e-platform. This paper, after present technology driven standards for the construction industry data management, it proposes the adoption of the emerging Service Oriented and Model Driven Architectures to shift forward the interoperability paradigm in this industrial sector. The paper illustrates some scenarios where significant impact is expected when adopting the proposed methodology.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.
A Grilo,A Zutshi, R Jardim-Goncalves
BUSINESS INTEROPERABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF BIM-BASED PROJECTS
Abstract: This paper proposes a model that closely captures the factors that are responsible for Business Interoperability in the context of collaborative business processes for the deployment of Building Information Modeling. The Business Interoperability Quotient Measurement Model (BIQMM), uses an interdisciplinary approach to capture the key elements responsible for collaboration performance and BIM platform configuration. Through the quantification of the relevance of each element to the particular collaboration scenario, and with the combination of the BIQMM with a multi-criteria decision making tool, the Analytical Network Process (ANP) approach, this model enables a quantitative analysis of Business Interoperability for BIM-based projects, so that an overall interoperability score can be calculated for enhanced performance measurements. An application scenario is presented and the application of the BIQMM and ANP, provides a comprehensive framework for interoperability measurement. The paper concludes by recognizing that relationships between business interoperability and true AEC performance improvements and subsequent economic benefits derived from BIM-based approaches needs to be further developed.
Keywords: Business Interoperability, BIM; Collaborative Working Environments
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Anotnio Grilo, Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves
Changing E-Procurement in the AEC Sector with BIM
Abstract: The paper will analyze how the new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are changing the processes within the AEC sector, namely the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach; Service Oriented Architecture, and the emerging of Cloud Computing. The combination of these approaches enable a full de-materialization of the whole building or life-cycle and the possibility of e-procurement become more efficient and increase market competitiveness. Cloud Computing is an evolution over the traditional hosting and application service providers, though more aligned with the service-oriented environments. The advent of Cloud computing is likely to take the burden of internal and external ICT challenges off of micro-size and small-size firms, and particularly alleviate the interoperability problem and thus sustaining the possibility of having the full transactional cycle fully integrated between the public entity issuing a tender and would-be suppliers within the AEC sector, particularly when combined with the BIM approach. This will support the possibility that electronic procurement does not become a too high burden to micro-sized and SMEs companies and thus maintaining their ability to tackle e-procurement of building and construction works public goods and services.The paper describes how BIM, SOA and Cloud Computing can change traditional e-procurement functions, namely the elaboration of tendering documents, as the technical data can be automatically coupled with transactional information, as in RFP, Order, or Invoice, and published in electronic procurement platforms. The paper will present results of current R&D of the application of this approach in the construction phase of building development projects.
Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Electronic Procurement, Service Oriented Architecture, Cloud Computing
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Antonio Grilo, Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves, Adolfo Steiger-Garcao
A methodology using domain ontology and SOA for better interoperability in AEC mass customization
Abstract: Today, the OMG’s Model Driven Architecture (MDA) makes available an open approach to write specifi-cations and develop applications, separating the application and business functionality from the platform technology. As well, the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) establishes a software architectural concept that defines the use of services to support the requirements of software users, making them available as independent services accessible in a standardized way. Together, these two architectures seem to provide a suitable framework to improve construction company’s competitiveness through the adoption of a standard-based extended environment, challenging and enhanc-ing the interoperability between computer systems and applications in industry. Nevertheless, Domain Ontologies (DO) have been recognized more and more as a challenging mechanism to bridge knowledge. The paper, after illustrating the general motivations the construction companies have to adopt open architectures to achieve interoperability for extended and collaborative enterprise practices, presents the emerging model driven and service oriented architectures. Then, it describes an innovative methodology for better interoperability in AEC mass customization. The paper finishes with discussion and concluding remarks concerning the empirical results obtained from the pilot demonstrator.
Keywords: interoperability, mass customization, domain ontology, SOA, MDA
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Jardim-Goncalves R, Sousa P, Pimentao J, Steigergarcao A, Grilo A, Tadeu L
Integration of planning and control activities for building and construction: experiencing standards
Abstract: The effective exchange of information regarding the planning and control
activities (schedules, resources, materials, cost, cash flow) between the
different parties involved in building and construction projects is a critical
success factor to avoid projects' time and costs overrun and to insure better
quality. However, current applications and research and development efforts
on electronic exchange of information are usually restricted to the exchange
of technical design information, particularly CAD exchange amongst
designers and between these and contractors; and of business data (purchase
orders, invoices, remittance advice, etc.), between contractors and builders,
merchants and suppliers. This paper will review current practitioners'
approach to the exchange of planning and control information, and discuss
the business need to the seamless flow of scheduling, resource, materials,
and cost information between firms. Different technical solutions available
to address the subject will be described. Through the description of the
experience in this area of two European projects, RoadRobot and SUMMIT,
the paper will also describe the state-of-the-art regarding the development of
international standards for the exchange of planning and control
information, particularly at the EDIFACT, STEP and IAI levels. RoadRobot
- Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot for Heavy Duty Civil Engineering
Applications, was a project devoted to implement a general standard-based
architecture to support the information management for road construction
environments, covering from the road design to road construction,
embracing the site, cell, machine and tool levels. SUMMIT - Supply Chain
Management In Construction Industry, is an end-user driven project which
envisages the creation, implementation, test and evaluation of an EDI, STEP
and IAI/IFC based communication infrastructure on a specific project of
building prefabricated houses, connecting project manager, contractor and
suppliers. This paper shows that international standards for planning and
control information in B and C are not yet enough developed and that further
developments are required.
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.
Pimentao J P, Sousa P A, Jardim-Goncalves R, Steiger-Garcao A
The road model - roadrobot’s experience in applying standards to road construction process’ models
Abstract: "This paper starts by presenting, in short, the architecture developed within European Project ESPRIT III 6660 RoadRobot (Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot For Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications), that aimed towards the full automation of road construction sites. The purpose of the architecture was to lay the basis for the development of a system capable of integrating a set of applications in a common architecture based on the use of a standard (ISO 10303-STEP).
The presented architecture has demonstrated the full integration of information and control, starting by loading the information from the selected CAE system (InRoads from Intergraph), down, through the intermediate steps, to the automatic control of a Road Paver from German manufacturer VÖGELE.
The main focus of the paper is on the standard-based information models that have been developed to represent project information throughout the road construction cycle.
The initial Road Model Kernel created by TNO has been extended to support road specifications that include an update on the specification of asphalt layers for road paving, but also the addition of geological information for the specification of excavation tasks.
A set of models has been developed for the maintenance of information regarding planning and scheduling of tasks, which takes into account the project information.
A model for resources is used form maintaining resource information for allocation during planning and scheduling.
Finally a control model has been developed for control of execution of tasks.
The RoadRobot has demonstrated the use of this architecture, and its underlying information models on a demonstration where information downloaded from the CAE system has made its way to a road paver who paved a road segment without on-site human intervention."
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated