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Karhu V

Product Model Based Design of Precast Facades

Abstract: In Finland, approximately 80 % of the facades of buildings are manufactured as precast units. Currently one of the obstacles to making the overall design and construction of precast building facades more efficient is the exchange of data about facades between architects, structural engineers and precast element manufacturers. The product model approach seems to offer a new methodology for data exchange and sharing which would solve many of the current problems. This paper presents the results of research carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in which this approach was tested. The prevailing way of designing facades was chosen as a reference process model. Based on an analysis of data needs in the different stages of the process a product data model of a facade was developed. The product data model was restricted to facades only and does not include other information about the building. Central data structures in the conceptual schema define how a precast concrete facade consists of precast concrete units, i.e., elements. Structural wall layers that may have openings form the elements. The conceptual schema was implemented as a prototype which was based on existing software, modified and further developed. The prototype was tested by an architectural design company, a structural design company and a manufacturer. The main conclusion of testing was that the data produced in the architectural design is directly usable in further design. The structural or element design may use the architectural data as such. Also, it is possible to create applications that take into account the architect's preferred design approach.

Keywords: facade, precast, data exchange, object oriented, architectural design

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1997/1 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1997 (browse)
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Karhu V

Formal languages for construction process modelling

Abstract: "Numerous modelling methods and languages have been developed for describing different aspects of industrial and other processes. Each method, for instance the widely used scheduling method as used in project planning software, has a specific scope (i.e. the modelling of the sequence in time of interdependent activities) for which it has been designed and for which it is well suited. Used outside this scope the method may prove quite inadequate. A number of such methods have either been used or proposed for the modelling of construction processes. In order to create the basis for a next generation of more general purpose process modelling tools an analysis has been made of six such methods. In order to illustrate the concepts and graphical notation of each method a simple example of making the foundation of a summerhouse with a sauna is used. Additionally the concepts of each method have been modelled using a uniform methodology, the EXPRESS information modelling language. Based on the analysis a synthesis method, called IDEF++ is proposed and defined in EXPRESS. The method is defined on the semantic level, as its main purpose would be to enable the storing of process descriptions in a database format, enabling multiple user views to the same information. A prototype application is developed to demonstrate different views."

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Full text: content.pdf (282,211 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.007764) class.software development (0.007478) class.social (0.006617)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Karhu V

A model based approach for construction process modelling

Abstract: Process modelling methods have been developed for describing different aspects of industrial and other processes. Each method, e.g. the widely used scheduling in project planning software, has a specific scope for which it has been designed. Used outside this scope the method may prove quite inadequate. The newer type of modelling method GEPM, generic process modelling method, has been developed. It has borrowed many features from other modelling methods such as scheduling, IDEF0, and the so-called simple flow method. The term simple flow method is a box-and-arrow method that have been used for construction process descriptions in several companies in different variations.The GEPM method is flexible in a sense that the conceptual model, which has been defined using the EXPRESS modelling language, can be changed in order to achieve specialised additional features when needed. The database implementation supports this approach as well. GEPM enables the users to interact with the developed process models through views. The chosen views are scheduling, IDEF0, and simple flow view. The implementation of GEPM in a database and the data exchange with other software tools has proven useful. The view analogy can be compared with advanced CAD tools, where users interact with the designs through design drawings in different scale. GEPM can be used for describing partly company specific quality systems with reference models. The reference models can be converted into project specific models, which in turn are scheduled.

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Full text: content.pdf (254,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026283) class.synthesis (0.018116) class.processing (0.016651)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Karhu V

A model based approach for construction process modelling

Abstract: Process modelling methods have been developed for describing different aspects of industrial andother processes. Each method has a specific scope for which it has been designed. Used outside thisscope the method may prove quite inadequate. The generic construction process modelling methodGEPM has been developed as a synthesis of features of other methods. GEPM is flexible in a sensethat the conceptual model can be changed in order to achieve specialised additional features whenneeded. The database implementation supports this approach as well as it enables the users tointeract with the developed process models through views. The chosen views correspond toscheduling, IDEF0, and flow methods. GEPM can be used for describing partly company specificquality systems with reference models, which can be converted into project specific models usingcertain rules and finally these specific models become schedules.

Keywords: process, modelling, conceptual, model, generic, view, database, usage, scenario

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Full text: content.pdf (234,562 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: ecce:2001 (browse)
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Karhu, Vesa

A generic construction process modelling method

Abstract: A variety of modelling methods has been used to model construction processes and projects, either during normal project planning or for process re-engineering efforts or research. One common method, which is widely used by construction industry practitioners, is scheduling. In addition to schedules, some companies have used a simple box-and-arrow method, which graphically resembles schedules, for analysing their working processes. More formal methods such as IDEF0 have been used in re-engineering projects and by researchers. All these methods are limited in scope and cannot be used to model all the aspects of the processes that practitioners are interested in. A new generic construction process modelling method, GEPM, was developed to overcome the deficiencies of the current methods. GEPM uses object-oriented principles, and has borrowed features, such as activity, task, and temporal dependency, from methods like IDEF0 and scheduling. GEPM is flexible in the sense that the conceptual model can be changed to achieve additional special features. This capability is also supported by the database implementation, which enables users to interact with the developed process models through views that represent partial models. The views support the IDEF0, scheduling, and simple flow methods. There are, though, rules for how to convert between the partial models through views. The evaluation of GEPM showed that more modelling features, i.e. modelling power, are obtained in comparison with the earlier methods. One of the essential features of GEPM is the distinction between activities and tasks. Activities define how an action will be carried out, generally using predetermined inputs to achieve a predetermined output, whereas tasks are activities with additionally specified starting and finishing times, duration and location. Moreover, a task has a type-attribute that refers to an activity where its overall template is defined. Before the actual evaluation, case material from a real project was preliminarily tested with GEPM along with the prototype application. It turned out that some additions were needed to the conceptual model of GEPM and to the prototype application. GEPM can be used for process improvement, process management, and for enhancing communication in a construction process. One usage scenario for GEPM is to define quality systems and reference models, using the activity sub-model and storing the results in the GEPM database. A project-specific model can be derived from the reference model using conversion rules, and it eventually turns into a project specific-schedule with tasks.

Keywords: Process model, IDEF0, Construction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,077,347 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Karstila K, Karhu V, Kihlman V, Pellosniemi J, Serh K J

Computer integrated building design rased on a generic product data model

Abstract: The paper describes the Finnish OOCAD approach and some related projects based on a generic product data model and exchange format being a basis for implementation of building product models and for exchanging simple product model data.

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Full text: content.pdf (307,847 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.022033) class.software-software (0.007586) class.store (0.005664)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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