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Junge R, Ammermann E, Liebich T

Product model: a basis for next generation CAAD

Abstract: Even at the very beginning of the use of computers in architecture there had already been the vision to use the new medium for more than just copying the draught man's way of work [l]. Thus, the search for such a computer assisted or even computer automated de- sign process, either for the more artistic or for the more constructive part of the architectural design process, has lasted as long as the history of CAD in architecture itself This search follows different concepts, which are, with more or less intenseness, AI approaches. The more artistic and creative aspects are to be solved by, e.g., Shape Grammar or Case Based Reasoning, the more constructive aspects by Expert Systems. These are approaches on a very high and demanding level. It is still not clear, how far the progress will lead to usability in practice. A more pragmatic but surely arduous approach is to built next generation CAAD system on the basis of a product model. The product model, however, will be a sound foundation for using case based or expert system approaches in a further step of the development. The Next CAAD project follows this approach. The model defines and describes the architectural design objects, their relations, dependencies and constraints. This will be done in a stepwise manner. A stepwise approach is also followed for the handling of dependencies and constraints. In a first phase the user will have to set the rules. In next phases small rule based modules will be taken over as far as they are proved useful.

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Full text: content.pdf (725,694 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.039372) class.analysis (0.033708) class.represent (0.021597)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Junge R, Beetz K, Liebich T

Product data model and implementation strategies for adistributed environment

Abstract: This paper is based on work carried out in a series of research and development projects.The latest of it is the ESPRIT Project VEGA. VEGA stands for 'Virtual Enterprises usingGroupware tools and distributed Architectures. The result will be an IT platform based onextended CORBA technologies, the 'COAST', adaptations and extensions of work done inthe Workflow Management Coalition, WEB technologies and Product Data Technology.Product model architectures and implementation strategies and for proof of feasibilityprototype implementation for enabling such an environment that will surely be based ondistributed product models including parts of such models are in the focus of this paper.

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Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Liebich T, Wix J

Highlights of the development process of industry foundation classes

Abstract: The Industry Foundation Classes, IFC, are developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability, IAI, to provide for data exchange and sharing capabilities for the building and construction sector of the industry. Since the foundation of the IAI in 1995 two releases of IFC have been published and the third release is on its way. Many prototype implementations by leading software companies have proved the IFC specifications, and commercial products to satisfy the end user demands can be expected within the next few quarters. The paper highlights the major development steps between the recognition of end user needs to improve business processes and the fulfillment of those needs by IFC specifications and implementations. Emphasis is put on the modeling of business processes, the provision of use cases, the integration of domain requirements within a single integrated but modular information model, and the underlying methodology and model architecture.

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Full text: content.pdf (171,215 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.037294) class.software development (0.030802) class.standards (0.027239)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


M. Weise, T. Liebich, J. Tulke & P. Bonsma

IFC Support for Model-based Scheduling

Abstract: Model-based scheduling is about linking information from three yet separated domains; (1) architectural design, (2) construction scheduling and (3) cost management & quantity take-off. It thus will benefit from the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach followed by the international buildingSMART initiative and its product the IFC data model specification. On the basis of a novel rule-based linking approach, which is shortly explained in the beginning, the paper provides an overview of the work that has been done to apply the linking approach in conjunction with the IFC 2x3 release and available IFC-enabled design applications. The paper gives insights into the capabilities but also the gaps of IFC. However, the paper is not going into technical details, which are provided in a separate, freely available discussion paper. Instead it shows the way from the requirements definitions, to the gap analysis, suggested extensions and prototype implementations, namely the Scheduling Assistant and the IFC-interface plug-in for MS Project. It finally discusses the current status of our developments and gives an outlook for further developments within the European Research and Development project InPro, an Integrated Project under the 6th framework program that has supported this work.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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P Katranuschkov, R J Scherer, M Weise, T Liebich

Extending BIM for Energy Simulation and Design Tasks

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Thomas Liebich

Unveiling IFC2x4: The next generation of openBIM

Abstract: The Industry Foundation Classes IFC are the only comprehensive, open and truly international standard to describe all major facets of building information. Development started back in 1996 with the release IFC1.0 and since 2005 the current and widely used release IFC2x3 has been published. IFC2x3 represents a quality assured and improved makeover of the previous IFC2x2 release completed in 2003. Meanwhile the longest and most intensive release work to define the basis of IFC for the years to come has been undertaken by buildingSMART Model Support Group MSG, an international team of experts that takes responsibility to combine all external contributions and performs the core work of IFC schema enhancements and improvements. The upcoming IFC2x4 release, scheduled for final publication by end of 2010, is the first major enhancement release since 6 years and extends the capabilities of the IFC schemas into new areas of high demand, like GIS connection, 4D and 5D models, thermal simulations, environmental impact, completing element catalogs for design, commissioning and facility management, base quantities, and many others.Recent publications, including those within previous proceedings of CIB W78 have shown that many research works are based on openBIM definitions following the IFC standard. The author is convinced that IFC2x4 will provide a much better base for such work, particularly in areas that involve the non-geometric aspects of building information modeling. The paper highlights these major areas of new and better coverage and provides examples from early prototypes. Special emphasis is given also to the quality and readability of the IFC schema and the paper will demonstrate new catalogs and search options to find the relevant information.The main focus of the paper is to highlight what had been achieved so far with IFC based interoperability, where the current IFC schema had limitations and how upcoming IFC2x4 addresses those. IFC2x4 will be presented as an enabler for openBIM development work both for the research community and for the construction industry within the next years.

Keywords: BIM, openBIM, IFC, standardization

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Verhoef M, Liebich T, Amor R

A multi-paradigm mapping method survey

Abstract: Recent research into integrated engineering applications has shown that the definition of a shared product model only solves part of the data exchange problem. When product data models are taken from their modelling environment to be used in practice, integration problems occur due to the unavoidable semantic mismatch between the models, representing the different actors in the system. To solve this problem it is necessary to support multiple views on the application domain ffom within this integrated system. Futhermore, when an integrated system is developed, product models can not be treated as static and frozen but need to be adjusted frequently, requiring existing instances of the model to be migrated from one version to another. Hence, the mapping problem domain is identified. In the emerging field of mapping languages, many solutions are proposed by research and industry, all having merits and weaknesses. We present an overview and a brief comparison of several approaches in this field from the system-developer's perspective.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,538,302 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.017232) class.strategies (0.013772) class.roadmaps (0.013441)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Wix J, Liebich T

Industry foundation classesarchitecture and development guidelines

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Full text: content.pdf (120,834 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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