Adoption processes for EDM, EDI and BIM in the construction industry
Abstract: Three strategically important uses of IT in the construction industry are the storage and management of project documents on webservers (EDM), the electronic handling of orders and invoices between companies (EDI) and the use of 3-D models including non-geometrical attributes for integrated design and construction (BIM). In a broad longitudinal survey study of IT use in the Swedish Construction Industry the extent of use of these techniques was measured in 1998, 2000 and 2007 (Samuelson, 2008). The results showed that EDM and EDI are currently already well-established techniques whereas BIM, although it promises the biggest potential benefits to the industry, only seems to be at the beginning of adoption. In a follow-up to the quantitative studies, the factors affecting the decisions to implement EDM, EDI and BIM as well as the actual adoption processes, were studied using semi-structured interviews with practitioners, in autumn 2009. The theoretical basis for the interview studies was informed by theoretical frameworks from IT-adoption theory (e.g Cooper and Zmud, 1990; Davis et. al., 1989; Gallivan, 2001) where in particular the UTAUT model (Venkatesh, et. al., 2003) has provided the main basis for the analyses presented here. The contribution of this paper is to use general IT adoption theory in the IT construction context to explain, and increase the understanding of, how different types of IT innovations can be implemented in the sector.The results showed that the decisions to take the above technologies into use are made on three different levels: the individual level, the organisational level in the form of a company, and the organisational level in the form of a project. The different patterns in adoption can to some part be explained by where the decisions are mainly taken. EDM is driven from the organisation/project level, EDI mainly from the organisation/company level, and BIM is driven by individuals pioneering the technique.
Keywords: IT, innovations, construction, adoption, implementation, Sweden
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The IT-barometer – a decade’s development of it use in the Swedish construction sector
Abstract: The IT-Barometer 2007 survey was carried out in the spring of 2007 in Sweden, as a follow-up to the IT-Barometer 1998 and 2000 surveys. This paper presents the most significant results from the survey with comparisons with the earlier ones. The Swedish survey was sent out to a statistically chosen selection from the whole country, di-vided into architects, technical consultants, contractors, property owners and manufacturers/trade. The survey pro-vided knowledge of access to computers and communication tools, use of IT in the three areas CAD, project webs and electronic trade, and plans and strategies for the use of IT in future. 100 % of all employees work at workplaces with computers. Over 70 % of the employees, including site workers, have their own computer, their own e-mail address and access to the Internet at their workplace. The use of CAD in general has increased but was almost fully integrated al-ready in 2000. The use of model-based CAD software has increased among architects as well as technical consultants. The use of project webs and electronic trade in the construction industry, which had started already at the time of the survey in 2000, is now widespread, even if the use is still not at a high level. The plans for IT investments are concen-trated on well-tried techniques in the companies’ support business, and at the top of the list at the moment are mobile solutions.
Keywords: survey, IT, construction industry, CAD, product models, project webs, electronic trade, communication, Sweden
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