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Amit Dayan and Rafael Sacks

Cognition Enhancement Using Virtual Reality in Apartment Customization

Abstract: The design and construction of customer configured apartments is challenging when customers are unable to interpret construction drawings or lack the knowledge or competence to deliver the decisions and information that is required from them. Builders dedicate significant managerial and technological effort to manage the customization process with their customers, and this process is commonly recognized to be inefficient. Studies suggest that one root cause is the fact that most customers are not construction professionals, hence decision making is often a challenging and sometimes unpleasant task for them due to insufficient product cognition. In this study we developed a virtual reality tool for the facilitation of an immersive presentation of yet to be built apartments to customers, speculating that cognition may be enhanced and facilitate the customization decisions. An experiment was conducted to identify and measure cognition differences. Some areas of measured cognition shown noticeable improvement which imply for significant cognition enhancement. Exploitation of the findings by future adoption of the examined method is discussed and suggested to construction companies.

Keywords: Product Customization, Apartment Design Changes, Virtual Reality, Residential Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0184

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Eastman C, Lee G, Sacks R

A new formal and analytical approach to modeling engineering project information processes

Abstract: A current research project within the North American Precast Concrete Industry aims to integrate information both within precast producer companies and between the companies and their suppliers, consultants, contractors, and clients. The first step was to undertake a process modeling study of the activities performed within each consortium company, so as to form the basis for the software specification and later data model. Existing process modeling methods and tools were considered . They do not support: · extraction of information used in the activities, · analytical validation of the process model and its information flows, · comparison of models collected from separate companies across an industry sector, · effective use of process model information in deriving a product model. To these ends, we developed an analytic modeling methodology, and implemented a new tool for its use.

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Full text: content.pdf (298,706 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.044021) class.represent (0.012790) class.software-software (0.004154)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Ghang Lee, Charles Eastman, and Rafael Sacks

Generating IFC Views And Conformance Classes Using GTPPM

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Gurevich U,Sacks R

Integrated virtual reality and discrete event simulation methods for production system research in construction

Abstract: Researching the behavior of production systems in construction is challenging because outcomes depend not only on production system design and on control strategies, but also on the decision-making behavior of works managers, crew leaders and suppliers. People make decisions within their context, and with limited and often uncertain information. This is especially true in the case of construction projects, where production is dependent on close coordination between multiple independent subcontractors. Theoretical models of the systems are limited if they ignore the human element, or if they assume rationality in decision-making. Thus experimental setups designed to test proposed production control systems or strategies should incorporate live experiments with human subjects. Virtual reality (VR) environments linked with discrete-event simulations (DES) provide an excellent platform for this kind of experimental setup. They enable, for example, experiments to compare performance with and without proposed information systems or other tools. We review the state-of-the-art in research of production control systems in construction management, with emphasis on VR and DES. We describe the experience gained in using a hybrid 'Virtual Construction Site' (VCS) system in which construction crew leaders were immersed in a virtual reality (VR) CAVE where they worked in a DES controlled site. The VCS proved its efficacy by allowing the researchers to observe, record and analyze the decision-making behavior of human subjects in a controlled environment, with high accuracy and in relatively very short times.

Keywords: Computer aided simulation,Construction management,Discrete-event simulation,Experimentation,Production system design,Virtual Reality

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Ivan Panushev, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, Manu Venugopal, Vahideh Aram

Development Of The National BIM Standard (NBIMS) For Precast/Prestressed Concrete

Abstract: Part 1 of the National BIM Standard (NBIMS) lays out the generic guidelines for developing specialized model views, defined in terms of industry foundation classes (IFC), for various exchanges. These model views are typically applicable to specific design or construction processes, or specific construction technologies. Various efforts have begun to develop such specialized model views. One of these pioneering projects has completed a model view definition for the planning, design, documentation, construction and fabrication phases of precast/prestressed concrete construction. In doing so our team had to deal with a range of issues stemming from the breadth and depth of the information exchanges. This paper presents the challenges experienced in compiling a BIM standard for precast/prestressed concrete. We discuss acquiring exchange requirements (ERs) from a diverse set of industry participants, rationalizing and formalizing them into information delivery manual (IDM), and finally developing model view definitions (MVDs) with specific IFC implementations that respond to the initial requirements. The model views are defined using information “concepts”. Each concept is then detailed with IFC 2x4 entities and relationships, which rigorously define how the concepts are to be implemented in ISO STEP EXPRESS-language functions. We propose several approaches for dealing with the breadth and the depth of information exchanges during the IDM and MVD development that allow for logical breakdown of the processes and the data types. Additionally we examine specific challenges that pertain to the fabrication and construction of precast concrete. We generalize the lessons learned in three different categories according to the NBIMS process phases: requirements development, model view definitions and implementation specifications.

Keywords: National BIM Standard (NBIMS), Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Model View Definitions (MVD), Information Delivery Manual (IDM), Product Modeling, Process Modeling.

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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L Manzione, M Wyse, R Sacks, L Van Berlo, S B Melhado

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS TO ANALYZE AND IMPROVE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION FLOW IN THE BIM DESIGN PROCESSand improve management of information flow in the BIM design process

Abstract: Thanks to the interoperability provided by the IFC standard, BIM technologies and IFC model servers are beginning to enable a design environment where the exchange of information among the actors can be synchronous and continuous using a single and central data model. Although this new set of technologies enables concurrent design, the problems associated with managing the flow of information itself in a concurrent design environment requires explicit management of editing rights and version control at the level of individual objects, rather than at the file level. However, while these are technical issues that have standard solutions, managing designers’ involvement in the process also becomes more challenging, requiring the development of new management methods suitable for the BIM collaborative environment.Common problems such as information ‘overflow’, incomplete modelling solutions or incorrectly matched technical solutions, and inventories of work in progress due to inattentive designers, if not treated methodically in the BIM platform, can quickly cause bottlenecks for the advancement of the process. The bottlenecks result in process waste (such as time spent waiting, large inventories of design information, processing sequences that cause unnecessary iterations, long cycle times and schedule overruns, etc.). Application of concepts that allow structuring and measuring of the information flow can improve the process and reduce the waste of resources, but there is no specific methodology for measuring information flow in a BIM environment. Taking a previous study, in which seven key performance indicators were developed and validated for application with conventional technology, as a starting point, this work has developed the methodology for using these indicators in a BIM project.

Keywords: information flow measure, collaborative design, model server, design management

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Ling Ma, Rafael Sacks and Uri Kattel

Building Model Object Classification for Semantic Enrichment Using Geometric Features and Pairwise Spatial Relationships

Abstract: Semantic enrichment is a process of supplementing/correcting information in a poorly prepared BIM model. Object classifications are essential information, but are commonly missing or incorrectly represented when transferring a BIM model or creating a model using tools customized for other domains in design. Automated compilation of 'as-is' BIM models from point cloud data also requires object classification, as well as 3D reconstruction. We present a systematic approach to classifying objects in a BIM model, for use in future semantic enrichment systems. Previous work on object classification in BIM model enrichment was restricted by its limited ability to accurately interpret geometric and spatial features and by the constraints of Boolean logic rules and the rule compilation process. To address these issues, we propose a procedure for establishing a knowledge base that associates objects with their features and relationships, and a matching algorithm based on a similarity measurement between the knowledge base and facts. An implementation on a synthetic bridge model shows that whereas some objects can be classified by shape features alone, most objects require the use of spatial relations for unique classification. Spatial context is more likely uniquely identify an object than shape features are.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Semantic Enrichment, Geometric Feature, Spatial Relation, Object Classification

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0044

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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M Belsky, R Sacks, I Brilakis

A Framework for Semantic Enrichment of IFC Building Models

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Series: w78:2013 (browse)
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Manu Venugopal, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, Ivan Panushev, Vahideh Aram

Engineering Semantics of Model Views for Building Information Model Exchanges Using IFC

Abstract: The data schema of the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) schema is generic, designed to support the full range of model exchanges needed in the construction industry. While it has a rich ontology of building part entities and relationships, it does not impose any fixed structure on the ways in which entities should be aggregated or represented, with the exception of the project-building-space containment hierarchy. Thus the IFC model, in and of it-self, is inadequate for ensuring interoperability between software applications. For any given set of use cases for a sub-domain of building construction, a set of model view definitions (MVD) is required to specify exactly what information should be exchanged, and in what form and structure the IFC entities are to be used. Compiling a model view definition, presently based on human intuition of industry knowledge, is challenging. What should be the level of detail to be included in case of geometry, classification and aggregations, and parts and relationships etc.? IFC, which is based on STEP and is represented in EXPRESS language, is known to be good in expressivity but lacks in a formal definition of its concepts. Thus in preparing a set of MVDs, information modellers must determine the appropriate level of meaning to require and they must define the typing structure to be used. If the structure is too simple, the exchanges will only have value for importing software able to apply some level of expert knowledge to interpret the information. If it is too rigid, then it will only be appropriate for a narrow range of use case exchanges and a large number of model view definitions will be required, which also implies that software companies will need to prepare multiple export and import routines. This paper discusses the spectrum of possibilities, using examples from concrete construction in general and precast concrete construction in particular.

Keywords: Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Model View Definitions (MVD), National BIM Standard (NBIMS), Product Modeling, Process Modeling

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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R Zeibak-Shini, L Ma, R Sacks

Mapping the Structural Frame of a Damaged Reinforced Concrete Building using As-Damaged Scans and As-Built BIM

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Series: w78:2015 (browse)
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