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Mahdavi A, Lam K P

A dialectic of process and tool: knowledge transfer and decision-making strategies in the building delivery process

Abstract: The building delivery process has traditionally been regarded as a discrete and sequential set of activities. This state of affairs is the result of a historical evolution driven by many factors, one of which might be the necessity to organize the activities for the purpose of establishing a professional fee structure that is commensurate with the scope of work and level of accountability or responsibility. However, within the context of rapid changing technologies, production processes as well as knowledge explosion, the existing framework no longer seems effective or capable of meeting the increasingly complex demands associated with the creation of the built environment. The capabilities of decision support tools are expanding but they still fall short of anticipating or challenging the very logic of the rather static processes they are supposed to support, This paper examines the necessary conditions under which significant structural changes in the building delivery process can evolve and the related implications for future development of decision support tools. It also explores hidden potentials of existing tools and propose enhancements to facilitate effective knowledge transfer and process management.

Keywords: building delivery process; computer-aided design support tools; knowledge transfer; adaptive-iterative approach; tradition and innovation

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Maher M L, Li H

Learning empirical knowledge to assist preliminary design

Abstract: The reuse of the experience of design and construction of a major project is ad hoc and depends on the individuals involved in the project being present on a similar project in the future. At the same time, the development of knowledge-based systems to support the design process requires the encoding of previous experience in a form that can be applied to future design projects. Machine learning techniques can be applied to automate the reuse of design experience and to facilitate the development of design knowledge bases. The application of machine learning techniques in a design domain requires the consideration of the representation of the learned design knowledge, that is, a target representation, as well as the content and form of the training data, or design examples. This paper proposes a target representation called a design concept and presents a methodology for learning design concepls from design examples. The method is illustrated by applying it to examples of bridge designs.

Keywords: machine learning; design; conceptual clustering; knowledge-based design

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Mathur K, Maver T

IT in the management of design and construction

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the developments in Information Technology (IT) and its impact on the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. It takes note of what has transpired in the last two decades and how the evolution of this subject corresponds to the predictions which had been made at various times in the past. It concludes that changes in procedures, processes and structure of organisations are needed if the most effective use of IT is to be achieved, and it is timely to go beyond solutions which mimic and automate current processes. Strategic frameworks must be defined within which new solutions will emerge rather than specific technical solutions for individual design or automation tasks. Concurrent changes in the AEC professions and the management of projects and organisations will be required to support the new tools and techniques offered by IT. Thus no promises should be made purely on the basis of emerging technologies. Hence the paper makes no attempt to predict the future of the AEC industry even though integrated systems may become available to support creative, cooperative, multi-disciplinary design, and though such systems will assist construction automation tasks, maintenance and facility management.

Keywords: information technology; construction; design; management; integration

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Mcgowan P H , Randall C W, Horner R M W

Resource significant models for estimating, planning and control in construction

Abstract: The production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes in any contracting organisation is a function of the reliability of the estimating and planning data, the soundness of judgement applied by the estimators and planners, and the abnty of the organisation to manipulate and process the data. By applying the lessons learnt from historical projects, the estimator or planner hopes to minimise the risk associated with the current project. In order to gain access to this vital information the historical data should relate to a realistic and measurable yardstick to which productivities, gang compositions, etc can be assigned. This should in turn dictate the format of the estimating or planning model issued by the client, Equally, it is vital that the resources expended on site can be efficiently and conveniently allocated against the requisite yardstick, ideally as a part of the control process. The authors have used the philosophy of resource significance to produce rational models for the generation and maintenance of a comprehensive and realistic estimating and planning database for construction projects. The models reflect the level of detail necessary for the production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes by encompassing the sign%cant labour, plant and material resources of a project. A factor is applied to the value of the significant resources to calculate the total value. The work packages of the resulting resource significant models relate to site operations and activities, thus ensuring that the database can form the basis of the site control and feedback system, as well as the tender models.

Keywords: resource significance; cost modelling; control; feedback; programme

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Meinecke C, Scherer R J

Blackboard based expert system for the reinforcement layout

Abstract: This paper presents a design expert system for the layout of the reinforcement for concrete members. The system has a blackboard architecture and a hybrid structure to integrate different sources. A domain independent process model is implemented to represent the design cycle. The domain knowledge is encoded in rules and in object-oriented structures. Hierarchical planning is used in order to decompose the design task to gain more clarity for the design elements.

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.065451) class.synthesis (0.041424) class.software development (0.028504)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Milton T

Media matters

Abstract: A cognitive explanation is offered 011 why media matters In designing. The explanation provides a conceptual frarrrework for distinguishing types of design tools.

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Full text: content.pdf (551,490 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.049790) class.analysis (0.043624)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Miyatake Y, Yamazaki Y, Kangari R

Tbe SMART system project: a strategy for management of information and automation technology in computer integrated construction

Abstract: In today's construction industry, information and automation technology must be viewed as potential resources. Computer Integrated Construction (CIC) is an emerging technology, and it is an approach to assisting construction f m s respond to the difficult environment in which they are operating currently. There is no standard formula for CIC. A strategy for implementing CIC should be formulated, and promoted at the highest company level. To demonstrate the concept of CIC, a prototype system should be introduced to investigate integration problems. It only presents a way of approaching the CIC. SMART (Shimizu Manufacturing system by Advanced Robotics Technology) system is a part of Shimizu s strategy for developing CIC based on site automation systems which automates a wide range of construction process. It also integrates a wide range of design, planning and management activities of the project. By introducing SMART system, amount of labour required and the construction period are both reduced significantly, and the planning and management productivity is increased. The objective of this paper is to describe the strategy in management of information and automation technology development from a Japanese construction company' s view point, and to present a prototype made1 for CIC implementation. Although the prototype system is not established as a comprehensive system, it can be viewed as a strategy toward a total CIC.

Keywords: automation; computer; integration; construction; robotics; information

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Morabito G

Efficiency evaluation of the project level of CAD

Abstract: Importance of the availability of adeguate technical cadres far design The availability of adeguate tcchnical cadres is a fundamental elements for the definition of productivev process. Among these processes, those pertaining to design need higher levels of knowledge. The availability is connected to the training which becomes continually longer and more complex due to the continual rise in the minimum levels of learning, This is due to the development of learning as well as to the increase of the complexity of projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,044,502 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.047401) class.education (0.028282) class.economic (0.010247)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Newton B W , Wilson B G , Crawford J R, Tucker S N

Networking construction: electronic integration of distributed information

Abstract: Construction in all advanced industrial societies is fragmented. On a single project, a variety of design technologies reside within different AEC firms which are frequently dispersed geographically (increasingly international). Coordination during design and construction can be enhanced via electronic networking among the various AEC firms and the Project Manager. This paper describes a prototype CAD Conferenchg systm jointly developed by CSIRO and Telecom Research Laboratories capable of operating on high_speed wide area networks linking heterogeneous CAD platform (hardware, software, networks). The paper highlights the technical as well as management issues to be resolved and the costs and benefits of CAD conferencing versus traditional methods of operation.

Keywords: communication networks; CAD; construction; information technology (IT)

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Full text: content.pdf (690,832 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Ostwald M J, Chen S E

Counter-intrusion strategies for I.T. networks in the building industry

Abstract: During the development of a building project all decisions are reliant on information, its transfer and interpretation. As IT networks are crucial to the efficient management of the building process, the security of these links is critical to the assurance of quality and success in a project. This paper considers counter-intrusion strategies for maximising security during the design, development and implementation stages of a building project. Through an analysis of documented intrusion strategies this paper considers IT concerns for data-theft in an industry wherein the potential for criminal intrusion is increasing every year.

Keywords: construction management; information technology; computer crime; project management; networks

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Full text: content.pdf (950,019 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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