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E Santos, E Toledo Santos

Design Coordination with Building Information Modelling BIM: A Case Study

Abstract: Despite some isolated initiatives using 3D CAD or BIM (Building Information Modeling) tools, project processes in the Brazilian AEC industry are still essentially developed using 2D technology, especially in the design development phases. There is evidence in the literature that 2D representations are prone to difficult-to-detect design errors and representation mistakes. BIM is an emerging paradigm based on object oriented, parameterized 3D CAD tools that promises an even better performance in design coordination processes than standard 3D CAD. This work aims to identify the potential for using BIM tools in the design coordination process as a more effective alternative to two-dimensional methods (abstraction and overlaying of drawings for interference checks and clash detection among different design disciplines). The research was based on the execution of a case study involving a complex residential building. Its design was developed as usual, with 2D CAD, as was its coordination process, by professional firms hired by the owner. Afterwards, using the same documents provided to the coordination firm, the first author independently developed the architectural, structural, plumbing, and HVAC BIM models for the standard floor plan of the building, simulating both the Schematic Design (SD) and the Design Development (DD) phases. During and after this process, detected interferences and information errors or omissions were documented in order to be compared with those reported in the traditional process of design coordination. The comparative analysis of both reports in this case study showed that the methodology with BIM detected 75% more design interferences and inconsistencies than the 2D-CAD supported method. This was partly due to the easier visualization of the virtual model, and to the software features for automating interference checks. On the other hand, the analysis of the interferences found in both processes demonstrated that the modeling procedure alone can affect design perception and evaluation, allowing the detection of a greater number of incompatibilities during the process.

Keywords: Design Coordination, BIM, Clash Detection, Case study

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Eduardo Toledo SANTOS, Rita Cristina FERREIRA

BUILDING DESIGN COORDINATION: COMPARING 2D AND 3D METHODS

Abstract: Coordination of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems among themselves and with the architectural, structural and other building systems is an important, challenging and time consuming task on the design phase of multistory buildings. Many researchers have already expressed a critical view on the most widely adopted coordination process, which makes use of transparent trade drawings overlapped on a light table for detecting conflicts. The use of a 2D CAD system is nothing but a direct replacement for paper drawings and light table, not considerably changing the method. The authors of this paper, like others, advocate the use of 3D CAD for the coordination process as a more apt tool for this spatial task. Two studies were conducted to compare the performance of a 2D CAD-based coordination method to that of a 3D CAD supported process, both in terms of efficiency and efficacy. Both methods used 2D CAD drawings as input but the three dimensional process required subsequent solid modeling of all relevant building systems. Even with this additional burden, the 3D-based method outperformed the traditional one. Results show its higher efficiency as there was a significant decrease in the time spent for detecting interferences during the development of a masonry production design in an experimental study. The higher number of conflicts revealed in the plumbing design for a multistory building demonstrated also its increased efficacy in a case study.

Keywords: design coordination, 2D CAD, 3D CAD, efficiency, efficacy

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Full text: content.pdf (226,229 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Maria Bernardete Barison, Eduardo Toledo Santos

Review and Analysis of Current Strategies for Planning a BIM Curriculum

Abstract: The process of introduction of BIM in schools has revealed that it is more complex than just to create a new course in the curriculum, as BIM has the potential to be introduced throughout the architecture/civil engineering program. The principles of BIM can be taught on the first two years through the integration of a BIM course with a Digital Graphic Representation Course. In the subsequent years, some BIM related concepts like teamwork and complexity can be taught in Design Studio and Building Technology courses. In the last year, BIM practices could be performed with actual construction projects in collaboration with companies through BIM content integrated with Management. This study provides a brief review of how some BIM courses have been planned, introduced, developed and evaluated in terms of prerequisites, goals, objectives, teaching methodologies, teaching resources, contents and teaching activities. Furthermore, this study presents information on the types and sizes of BIM models developed by students in these BIM courses and how the BIM models are evaluated by the instructor. Also, the main researches developed by BIM educators at universities are highlighted.

Keywords: BIM course, education, curriculum, architecture, civil engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (135,520 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Mauricio Toledo & Martin Fischer

GPOP: REPRESENTATION OF SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS ON BUILDING PROJECTS

Abstract: Sustainable development has attracted much attention in recent years and has created an increasing awareness of environmental issues affecting construction projects. Stakeholders of sustainable building projects seek inspiration and benchmarks on existing sustainable buildings. However, the documentation of the sustainability considerations (SC) on building projects is inconsistent and usually focused on the design solution with little or no attention to the project requirements or process and organizational aspects of the design. The comparison of sustainable projects is therefore difficult due to the varied nature and extent of the documented sustainability considerations. We propose a systematic representation of the SC, which we call gPOP model, that facilitates the comparison of sustainable projects. We created gPOP models of twelve recognized green buildings which led to a list of the 36 most common sustainability considerations (MCSC). We show that our representation of the SC allows the comparison of sustainable projects and helps uncover insights that otherwise remained hidden in the free-form text-based narratives used for documenting the SC.

Keywords: Sustainability, product model, process model, green building

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Full text: content.pdf (133,428 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Mauricio Toledo, Martin Fischer, John Haymaker, John Kunz, Marc Ramsey and Ben Suter

A Case Study In Integrated Product, Process, And Organization Modeling In Early Stages Of Sustainable Design

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Full text: content.pdf (1,796,870 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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