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A Alsaffar, N O Nawari, L Muszynski

Tilt-Up Design Software Verification For Lightweight Concrete Wall Behavior During Lifting

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Series: w78:2012 (browse)
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A Fateh, F Hejazi, M R Khojasteh

Seismic Performance Evaluation of Steel Shear Wall by Equivalent Truss Approach Modeling

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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A. Z. Sampaio, P. G. Henriques

Virtual reality technology applied in engineering education

Abstract: The three-dimensional geometric models used to present architectural and engineering work, show only the final form, which does not allow progress in constructions to be observed. But, the visual simulation of the construc-tion process of a building need mod-els which are able to produce dynamic changes to their geometry. This paper re-ports how techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could show their physical evolution over time and which would be able to simulate construction processes visually. Two types of work, concerning the construction of a cavity wall and a bridge, were developed as virtual models for educational purposes. These models make it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence, to visualize details of the form of every component of each work and to support the study of the type and method of op-eration of the equip-ment necessary in the construction process. These models have been used to distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of virtual reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of construction.

Keywords: education, engineering, simulation, 4d models, virtual reality

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Full text: content.pdf (969,857 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Avani Goyal, Ahmet Kilinc, Minkyung Kang and Burcu Akinci

Energy Efficient Improvements to the Envelope of Low-Income Housing: A Case Study of Habitat for Humanity Homes

Abstract: Low-income families pay substantial portions of their total expenditure on household energy bills, making them vulnerable to rising energy costs. Habitat for Humanity houses are built for low-income families and made affordable with volunteer work and construction material donations. Hence, the trade-off between the homesÕ initial construction costs and their life-time energy costs must be evaluated carefully. This paper targets to support better-informed decisions that balance the affordability of certain construction materials with their potential for energy efficiency. In collaboration with Habitat for Humanity of Westchester, we created an energy simulation model of an existing low-income house and calculated the homeÕs annual energy usage with different design alternatives for windows and walls. The resulting estimated annual energy savings are then evaluated alongside their initial investment costs, which were retrieved from RS Means standard construction cost data and quotations from industry. The results show that it is possible to reduce the energy cost of these houses without significantly increasing the construction costs through exploration of different wall and window options. While specific enclosure suggestions apply to this case-study, the utilized approach on exploring different options to identify opportunities to save energy can be used to understand impact on the lives of low-income families.

Keywords: Low-Income Housing, Energy Efficiency, Cost Analysis, Residential Housing, Habitat for Humanity

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0067

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Ayer S,Messner J,Anumba C

ecoCampus: a new approach to sustainable design education

Abstract: Civil and architectural engineering education programs strive to prepare students to design built environments that will be used by society. Some of these built systems can be challenging for laypeople to visualize while learning the design process. This research focuses on improving the way that students visualize and engage with building design content through the creation of a novel educational tool for designing sustainable building elements. The tool prototype, called ecoCampus, is an educational game that uses augmented reality technology on a mobile computing platform. It allows users to visualize a possible building retrofit design in the context of an existing built space and also receive tailored feedback about their design. The prototype application was tested with 47 first-year architectural engineering students to better understand the benefit of this tool. The results of this implementation were analyzed and compared to the results of prior semesters’ students who were tasked with completing a similar retrofit design activity without the use of ecoCampus or a mobile computing device. This comparison suggests that students who completed the ecoCampus activity were more likely to complete multiple design iterations as well as experiment with materials other than those present in the existing wall, suggesting that ecoCampus may help to break the tendency toward design fixation. Additionally, students generally rated the experience as highly enjoyable, suggesting engagement with this teaching tool. Future work will implement the ecoCampus experience with students in several building-related majors to identify possible additional benefits that can be observed.

Keywords: ecoCampus,Simulation Game,Augmented Reality,Engineering Education,Situated Learning Theory

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Full text: content.pdf (1,511,909 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Bond A J

An object-oriented program for retaining wall design

Abstract: The paper describes the underlying architecture of an object-oriented computer program for embedded retaining wall design. The requirements of different codes of practice are implemented in a series of classes derived from an abstract base class Designstandard. Two intermediate classes define the particular features of limit-state and working-stress design standards. Each concrete class in the hierarchy represents a single code of practice. The paper explains how the program routes its calculations to the relevant derived class.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Castronovo F,Nikolic D,Liu Y,Messner J

An evaluation of immersive virtual reality systems for design reviews

Abstract: With the growth of building information modeling (BIM) approaches to facility design, architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry has been shifting to the use of three-dimensional (3D) virtual facility mockups during design. Studies have shown that 3D models when displayed in an immersive projection display environment allow users to interact with the virtual environment at full scale, and review the designed space in a more intuitive manner. Virtual environments and VR systems however, can vary greatly in levels of immersion and user experience they offer. Thus, for a novice user choosing an appropriate and effective system for specific tasks can be daunting. To understand the benefits of specific VR systems for facility design, this research presents results from conducting design reviews in two immersive display systems. The first system was a fully immersive 5-wall CAVETM environment, while the second was a semi-immersive 3 screen display system. For each design review, the user experience of a reviewing team was documented and analyzed through targeted questionnaires. The large screens, field of view, level of immersion and the overall value of both systems for design reviews were rated consistently high. Furthermore, based on the comments provided by the project team, the fully-immersive system was found to be more appropriate for smaller groups that desire a higher level of immersion. Additionally, the semi-immersive system with a larger footprint was found to be more suitable for larger groups for various use cases. These results aim to guide future users to make an informed decision when selecting an appropriate immersive display system.

Keywords: virtual construction ,virtual reality,design review,immersive projection

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Earl M

A design automation paradox

Abstract: There seems to be a 'tyranny' of predefined purpose in some highly automated CAD products. For example, a CAD product for architects may provide 'high level" commands for trimming 'walls'. However, unless the 'wall' types conform to a particular topology, they can not be trimmed. On the other hand , there are 'low level' commands which can be used to trim more general types of graphic entities. However, unless the graphic entities are tediously decomposed into primitive elements, such as line segments and arcs, they also can not be trimmed. A paradox of design automation is that adding higher level functionality to a CAD product bounds its use within a specific design modeling domain and restricts its use from other more general domains. On the other hand, more general CAD products are flexible at a primitive level, but can not be used to provide 'high level' functionality. Although design specific knowledge within a CAD product may prove to be a great utility in some instances, it is typically paid for in terms of pre-conceived constraints on modeling. Artificial Intelligence techniques may provide a way of offering high level functionality with less pre-conceived constraints; however, it may be fallacious to assume that o particular modeling domain will not be Imposed on the user. This paper illustrates how a modeling domain is typically defined with a commercial CAD product . It takes notice of how the assumptions underlying any particular modeling domain may be challenged by design theory. It then cautiously explores a scenario for how the need for a modeling domain may be reconciled in a "thousand flowers bloom" approach.

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Full text: content.pdf (3,047,902 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.021123) class.analysis (0.008794) class.man-software (0.003701)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Earl M

Conceptual modeling through a conceptual structure

Abstract: This paper reports on a computer aided design system which I have developed to handle problems of ambiguity in the description of architectural objects during the schematic design phase. The knowledge base underlying this system is referred to as a "conceptual structure'', Within the "conceptual structure", an ambiguous "child" object may inherit attributes from many alternative kinds of "parent" objects. The "conceptual structure'' can also accommodate a design process through which a "child" object such as a "wall" can become less ambiguous over time. The end of this design process is the "disambiguated" specification of the final designed object. This system was first developed as part of my Ph.D. Dissertation at Harvard University (Mark 1993).

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Full text: content.pdf (2,348,456 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.033789) class.software development (0.008893) class.analysis (0.008488)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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