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Lehto M, Himanen V

Multidisciplinary information management in const- ruction industry, example of facilities management

Abstract: : Information management is mainly dealt as a research problem of information services or as a database management problem of CAD systems. In this paper several approaches to the construction information handling are discussed; information creation, transfer and retrieval. Actually, construction information management is a multidisciplinary task; a mixture of parameters of informatics, technology, and organisation. The CAD system design and the R&D of CAD systems could benefit from the development and problem solving of the problems not only common to it but also from the problem solving of the fields which are related to it. The answer for a specific information request is still best found by various means, also other than those of the ICT. Various aspects, such as 1 the type ICT, 2 the type and form of information, 3 the possibilities to understand the message, 4 information availability and gaps, 5 the purpose of information usage either scientific or industrial, 6 the type of building, for which the information is needed, and even 7 the status of the stakeholder in need of knowledge, all effect on the accessibility of information. Such means as information gateways, new media, electronic libraries, CAD (Computer Aided Design) in VR (Virtual Reality), and IFM (Integrated Facilities Management), as well as modelling of comprehension and information sharing of knowledge transformation from tacit to explicit are working for the common goal, which is to make the access to construction information easier.

Keywords: information retrieval, information service, Electronic Information Services (EIS), Intelligent Buildings (IB), Integrated Facilities Management (IFM), knowledge modelling

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/14 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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M. Hakkarainen, C. Woodward & Kari Rainio

Software Architecture for Mobile Mixed Reality and 4D BIM Interaction

Abstract: This article describes a software architecture for providing mobile user at the construction site with two-way real-time augmented reality access to 4D CAD and BIM information. The system covers all the components from content creation and positioning tools, through wireless data sharing and mobile interaction, up to augmented visualisation and feedback from the site. Special emphasis is placed on managing different model formats, linking them to 4D information, placing the models in geo coordinates, as well as managing data intensive building model information on thin mobile clients. We also discuss various interaction aspects, vision based and sensor based tracking methods, as well as tools for high-end architectural AR visualisation.

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Full text: content.pdf (208,322 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Maher M L, Liew P-S, Gero J S

An agent approach to data sharing in virtual worlds and CAD

Abstract: This paper describes an agent approach to sharing and synchronising building model data among CAD and virtual world systems. Virtual worlds facilitate a level of communication and collaboration not readily available in conventional CAD systems. The integration of virtual worlds and CAD systems using a common data model can make a significant impact on synchronous collaboration and real time multi-user multi-disciplinary modification of building data. By using agents, the integration of virtual worlds and conventional CAD systems can go beyond that of passive data transfer. Data within a central database is monitored and the relevant applications using the data are notified automatically of any changes through sensors and effectors embedded within agents that define their interface to the database. We use an object-oriented EDM database as the central repository of data and Active Worlds as the virtual environment that is coordinated with the shared data within the database. An interface agent is being developed to connect the virtual world to the database to allow active data access and modification. This agent approach can be extended to the integration of other applications and data models.

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Full text: content.pdf (250,992 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Maissa1 S, Frachet J P, Lombardo1 J C, Bourdeau1 M, Soubra1 S

Regulation checking in a virtual building

Abstract: Use of virtual buildings is a good way to get a concrete idea about future projects. It may allow avoiding errors discovered after the construction start and thus expensive to correct. In the near future, virtual environments should allow taking into account the whole constraints linked to the construction project (e.g. architectural, technical, regulations, financial, etc.). This is the purpose of CSTB's Enriched Virtual Environments project (EVE), which aims to offer users the possibility to couple 3D representation of the built environment with physical simulations (thermal, acoustic, etc.) within a Virtual Building. Moreover, EVE integrates a code compliance checking module, which provides users an easy and quick code compliance access. This access to regulation documents enables the user to query in an intuitive way the regulation database that applies to his project, and more particularly according to his interest (fire security, accessibility, etc.). This paper focuses on possible solutions to manage this last issue, which rely on the building data structure and the database containing French building code compliance and documents. The main objective for this work is to conceive a matching to bind these two concepts. Data structure is based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), and some tools have been implemented upon these classes, to allow code compliance access. The French regulation database is the CD-REEF one.

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Full text: content.pdf (735,399 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.055113) class.represent (0.025817) class.synthesis (0.024690)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Marir F, Aouad G, Cooper G

OSCONCAD: A model-based CAD System integrated with computer applications

Abstract: This paper presents OSCONCAD, an interactive system for integrating CAD and construction related applications to address the problems of design fragmentation and the gap that exists between construction and design processes. It provides a vehicle for storing architectural design information in an integrated construction object-oriented database that can be shared by a range of computer applications. The OSCONCAD model is characterised by several new features. It uses the object-oriented modelling approach to establish standard models for architectural design that comply with Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) for common interpretation of construction design objects and with CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) for distribution of the objects amongst the construction applications. It aims to achieve independence from the display environment by providing a set of Abstract Factory and Abstract Design Classes, which provide abstractions that the design model classes can use to draw and render themselves in any display environments. More importantly, graphical and textual information about the building design components is directly saved as instances in an object-oriented database without passing through the existing CAD databases. To demonstrate the independence from the display environment, two applications using OSCONCAD models are implemented. The first is an interactive AutoCAD application, which creates instances of the OSCONCAD design model and stores them directly in the distributed object database. The second A web-based application using VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) for remotely interrogating information stored within the integrated database, visualising and manipulating the design components in 3D environment. Also, to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the OSCON (Open Systems for Construction) object-oriented product model, three OSCON construction applications that access and share the OSCONCAD building design instances are presented.

Keywords: Distributed Construction Object Database, Model-Based CAD System, CORBA, IFC, OSCONCAD, UML, and VRML.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/1998/3 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:1998 (browse)
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Markus Schorr, Andre Borrmann, Cornelia Klaubert, Yang Ji, Willibald Gunthner, Ernst Rank

A Product Lifecycle Management Approach for Civil Engineering Projects

Abstract: Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is a strategic concept to develop, manage and keep control of industrial products over their entire lifecycle. The concept comprises IT-systems as well as methods, business processes and organizational structures (Arnold, 2005). The most essential component for a PLM implementation is product data management (PDM) systems that administrate all the data from initial ideas, drafts and drawings to information on the manufacture and maintenance on a central storage platform (Stark, 2005). Compared to document management systems, PDM systems provide part-oriented functions required for linking components, corresponding 3D models and drawings as well as any other related documents in a clearly arranged pattern. In addition, they also provide a convenient means of transferring and incorporating data from CAD-systems into the central storage platform. Combined with cleverly devised access rights management and an integrated workflow engine, PDM systems appear to be a good information management solution in civil engineering projects.Since those systems are designed to serve in-house information management procedures in the mechanical engineering industry, however, they have not been used for civil engineering projects so far (Borrmann, 2009). This is due to the fact that special requirements needed in construction projects have not been fulfilled yet. This paper describes both the concept and the implementation of a PDM system customized to manage data arising in civil engineering projects. As well as discussing specific requirements, it also introduces the implementation of necessary adjustments and several add-ons are presented. Thus the paper shows how an adapted PDM system originally developed for the mechanical engineering industry enables a company-wide component-oriented management of all relevant data over the entire lifecycle of a building. Beyond that, today’s inadequacies and missing features for using PDM systems in civil engineering projects are described.

Keywords: Building Lifecycle Management, Product Data Management, Document Management, Data Acquisition and Storage, Information and Knowledge Management

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Full text: content.pdf (332,442 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Mattias Jacobsson, Henrik CJ Linderoth

User Perceptions of ICT in a Major Swedish Building and Construction Company

Abstract: The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in building and construction companies has steadily been growing during the last decade. In the Scandinavian context 100 % of all employees work at workplaces with computers and 70 % of them, including site workers, have their own computer, their own e-mail address and access to the Internet at their workplace (Samuelsson 2008). Moreover is the use of applications like project webs and electronic trade widespread in the construction industry (ibid). However, despite the rapid diffusion of ICT in the industry, are there not yet many studies inquiring perceptions of the ICT actually being used. Accordingly is the objective of the paper to explore and analyze perceptions of ICT used in a major Swedish building and construction company. Data was collected by a web-based survey in two regional units of the company. 292 completed surveys were returned that corresponds to a response rate of 49 %. The data was analysed by a various set of statistical methods like T-test, bi-variate analysis, linear regression and factor analysis.It can be concluded that respondents are generally fairly satisfied with their ICT and it is perceived as necessity for the fulfilment of work tasks and a valuable support in various areas of decision making. There are, however, some significant differences in perceptions of the outcomes of ICT-usage among professional groups. Moreover, perceptions of a single system were positive correlated with the frequency of use of the system and perceptions of ICT in general could be categorized into three main categories.ReferencesSamuelsson, O. (2008) The IT-barometer – A decade’s development of IT-use in the Swedish construction sector. ITcon Vol. 13, pg. 1-19, http://www.itcon.org/2008/1.

Keywords: Perceived usefulness, post-adoption, surveys, IS-success, construction companies

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Full text: content.pdf (133,454 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Mcgowan P H , Randall C W, Horner R M W

Resource significant models for estimating, planning and control in construction

Abstract: The production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes in any contracting organisation is a function of the reliability of the estimating and planning data, the soundness of judgement applied by the estimators and planners, and the abnty of the organisation to manipulate and process the data. By applying the lessons learnt from historical projects, the estimator or planner hopes to minimise the risk associated with the current project. In order to gain access to this vital information the historical data should relate to a realistic and measurable yardstick to which productivities, gang compositions, etc can be assigned. This should in turn dictate the format of the estimating or planning model issued by the client, Equally, it is vital that the resources expended on site can be efficiently and conveniently allocated against the requisite yardstick, ideally as a part of the control process. The authors have used the philosophy of resource significance to produce rational models for the generation and maintenance of a comprehensive and realistic estimating and planning database for construction projects. The models reflect the level of detail necessary for the production of acceptably accurate estimates and programmes by encompassing the sign%cant labour, plant and material resources of a project. A factor is applied to the value of the significant resources to calculate the total value. The work packages of the resulting resource significant models relate to site operations and activities, thus ensuring that the database can form the basis of the site control and feedback system, as well as the tender models.

Keywords: resource significance; cost modelling; control; feedback; programme

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Full text: content.pdf (612,842 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


McMeel D,Amor R

Ecosystem information models: visualizing complex data to support collaborative decision making

Abstract: There is considerable interest in open data with many administrations launching, or involved in, programmes to make government data open and available. From geographical information systems (GIS) to infrastructure data and building information models (BIMs), it is believed that access to this data will contribute to productivity and efficiency gains. Yet there remains uncertainty surrounding how stakeholders involved in design, construction and maintenance of the built environment might benefit from this unlocked information. We begin this paper by looking at a specific government initiative providing access to built environment datasets - we investigate and compare the different approaches for accessing this information-base. With speculation that open access will lead to huge benefits in productivity, particularly through interoperability, the second part of our paper implements a system to explore the federation of this data and the results of its interoperation in a collaborative visual environment. While prediction models continue to be problematic when simulating multiple complex and interdependent factors of the built environment concurrently, here we appropriate data and exploit it within decision-support systems. A Systems that provides a qualitative virtual 3D rendering of what is otherwise prosaic or opaque technical information, providing the potential to federate, align and compare otherwise disparate sources of data. Arguably access to open data has not revolutionized consumer computing, but it has played an important part in combination with the emergence of other technologies such as mobile devices, Wi-Fi and location aware computing. Here we critique open data initiatives for design and construction, and ask what part they might playin combination with other technologiesto help deliver on the promise of productivity.

Keywords: Design,Digital Media,Interoperability,Data,Ecosystem

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Full text: content.pdf (666,955 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Meniru K, Bedard C, Rivard H

Integrated computer-based approach to support conceptual building design

Abstract: "For more than 40 years, computers have been associated with the delivery of construction activities. From large mainframe machines, construction applications have migrated to the full realm of processors - embedded to palmtops to desktops - and to different types of environments, as much on-site in space or underground as in the office. The matrix-based stiffness method on punched cards in batch mode has long ago given way to graphics-based interactive user-interfaces on the Web that give access to a myriad of applications that can support most aspects of the work of construction professionals. In view of such progress, what is left in terms of computer-mediated support for construction that is not already available? The short answer is integration. Much of the construction industry in the world today, certainly in North America, is still characterized by fragmentation. Even though computer support for construction is available in a multitude of ways, effective integration across actors, over the entire life-cycle and covering all components that compose building projects is still in its infancy. At the present time, commercial integrated solutions are more prevalent at the detailed design stage in the form of ""design suites"" of applications for drafting, structures, HVAC, estimating etc. The authors have developed, over many years, a number of integrated building design prototypes at the preliminary stage by means of novel computing techniques derived from AI and product/process modelling. The purpose of this presentation is to push the exploration further upstream at the conceptual design stage, when decisions involving only few individuals have the greatest impact on the life-cycle performance of the building delivery process. On the basis of an extensive literature review, analysis of current design environments and protocol analysis of designers actually engaged in such work, we will identify key concepts and activities that are essential at the conceptual design stage, with the view to propose and implement a computer-based prototype capable of providing effective support."

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Full text: content.pdf (254,793 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.046368) class.environment (0.035022) class.impact (0.022261)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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