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Erbug C

An ergonomics model for product design

Abstract: This paper models the integration of ergonomics knowledge to the design process. It is suggested that, neither a single methodology, nor an information system will be sufficient to cover all the requirements of an ergonomic product. The relative emphasis given to ergonomics varies with the types of design problem. Nonetheless, it is assumed that the design process will always involve the user, thus ergonomics. The difficulties arise from ill-defined nature of design, inadequate knowledge background or inadequate data which requires a long-tern approach where everything should be thought at macro level. For this purpose, the aim of the paper is to propose a communication model for ergonomists and designers who believe in the value of experts. Therefore, this model presents a macro outlook onto ergonomics and product design, whereas further studies may extend the scope by presenting sub-models for reaching details in the design process or existing micro models (expert or aiding systems) will be valuable sources if they are inserted into this system. "he research is focused on literature search, accident analysis and design strategy analysis. The chief questions to be addressed in the literature search are: - What is the relation between design and ergonomics? - What is designer's responsibility in terms of design, manufacturing and products liability? - What kind of ergonomics information do designers need? How reliable are they? . - What is meant by product-user interaction? The chief questions to be addressed in accident analysis are: - What kind of information does accident analysis provide? - What is the reliability of accident data?. - How is this information used in design? The chief questions to be addressed in design strategy analysis are: - What is a model and what type of models exist in design? - What is design management? - What is a product life-cycle? reputation? . - What are the benefits of product safety in terms of company's reputation?

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Full text: content.pdf (1,072,735 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.026991) class.synthesis (0.025631) class.social (0.018099)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Flood, Ian; Issa, Raja R.A.; Mutis, Ivan

A Virtual Reality Interpreter for Aiding the Reconciliation of Construction Concepts

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Full text: content.pdf (1,125,325 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2006 (browse)
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Ivan Mutis, Raja R.A. Issa

THE INTEROPERABILITY ACT FOR EMCOMPASING SEMANTICS IN CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

Abstract: Actors generate, share, and ultimately communicate information with other construction project actors. The content of this information is described within construction documents such as drawings, schedules, and specifications. Poor understanding of the content of the documents has been a factor in the escalation of construction project complexity. The result is a lack of efficiency in the communication that has been documented as failures to interoperate among actors during any construction process. As a consequence, actors need to employ additional resources for aiding the understanding of the shared information therefore significantly raising costs and reducing project productivity. Current research efforts are aimed at aiding interoperability by sharing common vocabulary and models among project actors. These efforts have been addressed through the development of common, shared models and construction industry standards. The objective is that multiple construction participants ultimately recognize the shared models and set a universal language. The implementation and use of the models and the common vocabulary provides the possibility of reusing the information within the construction documents by project actors. However, the industry has failed to adopt the commonly shared models and the universal language to effectively share information. The assumption in the construction industry is that the creation of an a priori consensus over the content of what is described within the information is a condition for interoperability. This paper questions this assumption by diverging into another paradigm, the semantics of the represented information. As an alternative, our research focuses on the semantic paradigm. We move away from the attempts to find consensus through common vocabulary and shared models to new methods that benefit from precise meanings. Our assumption is that strategies for exchanging, sharing, and integrating information will not reduce the lack of full automatic interoperability without working first on strategies for understanding the information from other sources.One of the steps proposed here towards this paradigm is the interpretation of the represented information by other construction actors. Our research explores the relationship between the represented information and the interpreter. For this purpose, a parallel of the interpretation of shared information has been made through the Speech Act Theory (Searle 1969). The objective is to understand what background information is pertinent to the conversation and what assumptions and inferences are needed to capture the intended meaning within the expressed utterance in order to parallel the speech act with the shared represented information between two construction participants. This research proposes the interoperability act concept for construction documents. The significant implications of this effort are the characterization of the interoperability act with the purpose of developing new forms of representing semantics within the construction documents, which provide a method to successfully share and communicate information.

Keywords: Interoperability act, construction concepts, interoperability actions, forms of representation

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Full text: content.pdf (181,020 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Jaggar D M

Expert system technology in construction management

Abstract: This paper describes the development of a micro computer aid driven by a suite of programs which allow the design identified solution for a given building project to be transposed into information reflecting the construction solution. The 'modus operandi' of the computer aid is the use of an Expert System which can access and manipulate data contained in a data base and to submit back to a data base, for subsequent user retrieval, information about the particular building project under consideration at various stages during its realization. The system is initiated by the creation of a design situation model which is held in a relational data base in the form of information concerning the descriptions and quantities of the finished work required to achieve the building project. The Expert System, through the logic contained in the inference engine, organises the design stated situation model describing the construction solution in terms of construction activities, the resources needed and their cost implications. Thus the system is intended to provide an interface between the product related design solution and the process related construction solution and has the aim of aiding the following: 1. Resource and financial management by design team 2. Resource and financial management by the construction team

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Full text: content.pdf (2,480,147 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.058494) class.analysis (0.032486) class.man-software (0.018331)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Neilson A, Kumar B, MacLeod I A

Issues in representation and processing of structural design codes of practice

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid approach to standards processing. Standards processing is a term used the denote the procedures of designing and checking a design in accordance with the relevant code(s) of practice. The use of the conventional printed version of codes of practice is inherently fraught with problems. They are renowned for being voluminous, ambiguous in nature, and frequently full of cross references. Thus the extraction of relevant information is difEicult. The strategy adopted for representing and processing codes of practice, discussed in this paper is aimed at alleviating these problems. Hypertext is employed as a form of representation, allowing the drawbacks of ambiguity, and cross referencing to be overcome. In addition a method of organising standards information is proposed aimed at aiding the retrieval of relevant information.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,298,152 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.030943) class.analysis (0.016477) class.represent (0.012149)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


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