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Yasumuro Y,Kusakabe S,Dan H,Fuyuki M

3d barrier-free verification for wheelchair access

Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology for identifying barriers encountered by wheelchair users in daily life spaces. Currently, barrier-free designs are required not only for newly constructed buildings, but also when renovating existing facilities and public spaces. However, the arrangement of furniture, equipment, and many other objects in a space often impose barriers, and even the simple bumps and steps on pathways can obstruct wheelchair passage. Furthermore, it is often difficult for administrators to envisage the full reality of barriers in their facilities because potential obstacles can be created inadvertently by a variety of objects that have complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometries. In such cases, their existence will normally remain unknown until someone actually tries to transit the area using a wheelchair. Our approach aims to capture the overall dimensions of target spaces by collecting and combining depth images taken using a hand-held RGB-D camera (also commonly referred to as a ranging camera), and then to navigate a virtual wheelchair through the target space in a computer simulation to check for obstacles. The practical egomotion capabilities of RGB-D camera sensors within actual environments make it possible to achieve real-time simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) functionality, which is necessary for creating accurate 3D location maps. The Microsoft Kinect™ sensor, which was originally designed as a user interface for home-use video games, is a good example for a low-cost, compact RGB-D camera. Since the Kinect device is sufficiently compact for use when capturing arbitrary objects in situ, we adopted it for use in our study and applied a SLAM technique to perform barrier checks. Our simulation employs 3D projections of all objects and wheelchair transit volumes onto a floor plane in order to detect potential obstacles. We implemented our proposed method on a laptop personal computer (PC) and collected data from actual classroom and common space locations in a university. The experimental results of our method showed effective functionality in terms of practicality and usability.

Keywords: Wheelchair user,Barrier-free,RGB-D camera,Free-hand scan,Obstacle check,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Yu Zhang, Alan Kwan, John Miles

Using generative representations for structural design

Abstract: Work in recent years has shown that topological reasoning with search algorithms using traditional rep-resentations such as parameters, ground structures, voxels, etc is very limiting. Each type of representation is only to be suitable for a limited number of topologies. This is restrictive because there are many problems where the topology of the solution is unknown except in the most general terms or there are competing topologies which are suitable for solv-ing a given problem. Hence, at best, choosing a representation technique can be difficult and at worst it can restrict the search so that a full examination of the problem is not possible. Also, as the available computational power increases and the technology of search algorithms is enhanced, the topologies being reasoned about become ever more complex and so the representations within the algorithms can become cumbersome. A possible solution to these difficulties is the use of generative geometries where the object is represented by a set of rules which describe how to create the object. These can, when correctly implemented, give a compact representation and one which can be handled within typical search algorithms like for example genetic algorithms. This paper looks at the use of L-systems. They are being applied to beam design problems although this paper focuses on the representation. As will be shown in the paper, although the representation has some attractions, there are also some difficulties with the implementation and especially with en-forcing constraints. The paper describes work which is in progress rather than a completed project.

Keywords: generative representation, evolutionary computation, structures, search algorithms

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Yusuke Y

Conceptual models for planning of building and construction systems

Abstract: Presently, Conputer Integrated Construction (CIC) is recognized as a strategy as well as a concept. for associating existing resources, technologies, processes and organizations by information integration and automaton to optimize overall construction activities and functions. However although innovative computer and automation applications to the Architectwall Engineering/ Construction (NFYC) industry are introduced, no efficient approach to implement a full scale CIC has been established. Several attempts have taken place in different areas of the AWC industry depending on specific business characteristics, which also indicate potential applications of product modeling, process inodeling and information modeling to a practical approach to the Iota1 CIC. 'nie aim of this paper is to present results of current research and development issues on conceptual models which enable interactive planning between design and construction planning focusing on building systems and construction systems.Severa1 types of conceptual models are efficiently applied to explore distributed project planning and management in several planning stages. These models also incorporate conceptual product models represented as building system models, and conceptual process models represented as construction system planning models, construction activity planning models and construction facility planning models for CIC.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,568,579 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.047051) class.strategies (0.028122) class.represent (0.015794)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Z Liu, M Osmani, P Demian, A N Baldwin

The potential use of BIM to aid construction waste minimisation

Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that the construction industry has a major impact on the environment, both in terms of resource consumption and waste production. The construction industry is responsible for producing a whole variety of different onsite wastes; the amount and type of which depends on factors such as the stage of construction, type of construction work, direct or indirect stakeholders’ design change contribution, and practices throughout the project lifecycle. A number of construction waste minimisation (CWM) techniques and tools are currently available to assist contractors to divert waste away from landfill. However, literature reveals that there are insufficient techniques and tools for reducing construction waste during the design and procurement stages. The last few years saw the emergence of Building Information Modelling (BIM) techniques, which can be adopted to improve sustainable construction performance. BIM is a maturing modelling philosophy, which has been applied to several building-related functions such as visualising designs, automating quantity takeoffs, checking compliance with regulations, and scheduling construction processes. Furthermore, BIM, as a real-time interactive and collaborative communication system, has the potential to help project stakeholders to collaboratively attain waste minimisation for sustainable construction and building throughout design, construction and throughout the lifecycle by improving building construction performance. Hence, this paper, which is part of an ongoing doctoral study, explores the potential application of BIM to design out waste. An in-depth literature review was conducted to provide a foundation for the doctoral study that aims to investigate the use of BIM as a potential platform for building design waste minimisation. The paper explores construction waste origins and causes, current waste reduction practices; examines current industry BIM practices and investigates BIM tools for sustainable project construction and management; and identifies the knowledge gaps in existing literature that pave the way for the subsequent data collection stages.

Keywords: Environmental impact, Sustainable construction, Construction waste minimisation (CWM), Building Information Modelling (BIM), Designing out waste

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Zhang Y,Al-Bataineh M,Kostelyk J,AbouRizk S

Practical applications of 3d/4d modeling, and process simulation in construction

Abstract: This paper covers the application of innovative decision support technologies on two major projects in Edmonton. The first one is the West Edmonton Sanitary Sewer (WESS) stage W12. A syphon was constructed to connect the Rat Creek Trunk to the Gold Bar Wastewater Treatment Plant across the North Saskatchewan River, which was designed to control and reduce the combined sewer overflow. The other one is the 3.3-km North LRT (Light Rail Transit) extension line, which connects the current Churchill station to the future NAIT station in Edmonton. A tunnel excavated using the Sequential Excavation Tunneling Method from Churchill station to MacEwan station in the downtown area plays a critical role in the overall project, and has significant impact on project completion date and project budget. Due to the complexity of the two projects, various 3D technologies and construction simulation models were applied to facilitate decision-making processes and project controls. 3D models were developed for design review and design conflict detection, while 4D models were established to help create a robust construction schedule. Construction sequencing animation was used to convey design intents and demonstrate construction stages to contractors and workers. Construction simulation models were developed in order to analyze different scenarios and assist in selecting the best option. The combined applications of 3D technologies and construction simulation helped the project team to identify critical issues, and assured effective communication among engineers, management, contractors, and other parties. Therefore, it provided better opportunities for the success of the projects.

Keywords: Construction management,drainage construction,design review,3D modeling,construction simulation,animation

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Zhiliang Ma and Zhe Liu

Ontology- and Freeware-Based Platform for Rapid Development of BIM Applications with Reasoning Support

Abstract: In the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) area, a remarkable tendency is to use the Building Information Modeling (BIM) data to carry out analysis and calculation based on rules specified in regulations or standards so that the BIM applications with reasoning support (BIM-R applications) are necessary. The current way to develop BIM-R applications separately and represent rules by coding or in proprietary formats has the problems of both cost and efficiency. To solve the problems, a new way is proposed, i.e. to use a platform for rapid development of BIM-R applications (BIM-R platform) implemented based on ontology and freeware components. The research establishes 1) the functional requirements of the BIM-R platform, 2) the mechanism to transform BIM data into ontology data, and 3) the architecture of the BIM-R platform, and selects freeware components to be used. A platform is implemented accordingly and applied to develop a prototype BIM-R application for as-bid cost estimation of buildings for verification. The proposed platform can help reduce cost and improve efficiency for the development of BIM-R applications and can be used by both researchers and developers.

Keywords: BIM (Building Information Modeling), Reasoning, Rapid Development Platform, Ontology, Freeware

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0330

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Zhiliang Ma, Xiude Zhang, Song Wu, Zhenhua Wei, Zhe Lou

Framework Design for Bim-Based Construction Cost Estimating Software

Abstract: Cost estimating is one of the critical activities for any construction projects. During the tendering process, preparing bids is often the most time consuming task, especially for a large complex project with relevant short tendering period. Estimating software have been developed and used to assist the estimators to undertake estimating task more efficiently. However, up to now, the estimators have to do extensive work on measurement to establish bill of quantities from drawing sheets or the electrical 2D data before cost estimating can be completed.With the development of BIM (Building Information Model), the design of buildings can be done with BIM tools and the BIM data can be obtained by the estimators. Thus some software vendors have developed BIM based applications to enable more efficient cost estimation. However, due to the localization of specifications and building standards, those applications can not be applied widely to all the countries and regions. It is the case for China, which the BIM-based applications from foreign vendors are hardly used, particularly in the cost estimating area.This paper is aimed to develop a framework for a BIM-based cost estimating application based on Chinese standards. The characteristics of the existing Chinese construction estimating software tools are presented and the requirements for next generation of construction cost estimating software are summarized based on this study. Moreover, the characteristics of the major BIM-based construction cost estimating tools from foreign vendors are reviewed and their feasibility to be used in China is also analyzed. Furthermore, the critical works to be carried out for such software development are analyzed with a particular attention being paid to sharing of the estimating data in the later stages in construction. Finally, a framework for the BIM-based cost estimating software subject to Chinese standards is established and presented, including the description for the major functions of the system. This paper provided a sound foundation for developing BIM-based cost estimating software subject to Chinese standards and it should be beneficial to other researchers who are developing BIM-based applications to meet the local requirements.

Keywords: BIM, IFC, Construction Cost Estimating, Software Framework

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Zhuohua Huang and Aizhu Ren

A BIM Based Collaboration Platform for Data Transmitting in Building Design

Abstract: BIM (Building Information Modelling) has gradually been accepted and applied by the Chinese engineers. In the meantime, the BIM software which suits the Chinese design process and satisfies the Chinese design codes have not been developed sufficiently. To meet the requirements of BIM based collaboration platform for fluent data transmitting in building design process which suits the Chinese building design practice, this paper presents the solutions on the development of a BIM based collaboration platform. 4-layer architecture is employed to make the function of each part of the collaboration platform clearer; a 3D space for BIM models with version information is created to record the model history and allow engineers to check the version difference; the authorization and certification managing algorithms are designed to ensure an ordered work status on the collaboration platform; the lock-switches and dividing of work sets are developed to solve the object conflict problems; message sending and receiving mechanism are formulated to get fluent communications among the users who are working on the same building project. A protocol of the collaboration platform has been developed on these solutions and shows the study results.

Keywords: BIM, Collaboration Platform, Building Design, System Architecture

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0222

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Zoran Pučko, Dražen Vincek, Andrej Štrukelj and Nataša Šuman

Planning of Maintenance Cost for Business-Storage Facility Using BIM

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present case study of the use of BIM approach for planning of maintenance cost of a facility in the operation time of a real business-storage facility in Slovenia. The first part outlines general principles of FM and BIM. Next, the features of facility maintenance are described according to the current Slovenian legislation. In addition, several standards used in other countries, as the result of the mutual development of the FM and BIM, are introduced. After that, step-by-step procedures for planning of maintenance cost are exposed, namely from Element list for maintenance, determination of the lifetime, service measures and cost analysis to development of cost plan in tabular form. The presented cost plan is designed in a unique way in which cost analysis is performed by using BIM approach with linked data to 3D BIM model. Moreover, Construction Project Management Software (Vico Office) is applied. For the purpose of appraisal maintenance costs over the entire life of 60 years, cumulative costs are distributed over the years. Thus, the cost plan is made in tabular form in Excel, presenting visual overview of planned maintenance more explicitly.

Keywords: Facility Maintenance, Building Information Modelling, BIM, Cost Analysis, Cost Plan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0016

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