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Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Alan Bridges

Problem based learning in architectural education

Abstract: There is limited published research and discussion on pedagogical approaches in architectural education. Problem (or Project) Based Learning is used successfully in other professional disciplines, and, consequently, there have been attempts to utilise the same pedagogical approach in architectural education. This paper critically reviews PBL implementations at the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University of Delft (TUDelft), Netherlands and the De-partment of Architecture, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia and draws general conclusions about the implementation of PBL in architecture and particular recommendations with respect to the teaching of architectural computing.

Keywords: PBL; architectural education; computing

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Full text: content.pdf (162,314 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Alekhin V,Khanina A

The conception of making decision support system introduction into building structures design practice

Abstract: The paper discusses introduction of artificial intelligence into structural engineering practice. The necessity of this paper is accelerated by the information base (IB) and decision support systems exigency, as some standards are not completely designed and there is no statistical information on faults, defects and damage to various buildings. The article suggests creating a decision support system for the optimal structural design of buildings that takes into account a risk of a propagating rupture. The article describes possibilities of a decision support system, the stages of its development and structure. Conceptual solution of the proposed decision support system for the analysis of structures is illustrated by designing trade and business centre high-rise building. The system is based on a knowledge base, which is created during its development and can be updated and expanded with the advent of new codes of practice and new structural design recommendations. Expert system will be built on the basis of clear rules and recommendations from foreign and Russian codes of practice, as well as European standards, and international occurrences of buildings accidents. Optimization of structural elements is performed on the basis of a genetic algorithm. The effect of various genetic operators on the performance of the algorithm is investigated. A model of a genetic algorithm for optimization of steel structural elements is developed. The work is the attempt to create a complex approach to the structural design: the user can not only study the normative documentation, get advice, study the examples of calculation, but also take advantage of the proposed programs for the optimization of the design decisions. It is expected that expert’s knowledge on the analysis of buildings incorporated in expert system will improve the quality of the design, and as a consequence, the reliability of structures.

Keywords: decision support systems,expert systems,optimum design,propagating rupture,genetic algorithm

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Alexander J, Coble R, Crawford J, Drogemuller R, Leslie H, Newton P, Wilson B, Yum Kwok-Keung

Information and communication in construction : closing the loop

Abstract: Both nationally and internationally, the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) sector is highly fragmented : it is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the nature of information and knowledge can be dispersed among firms and organisations, and consortia are frequently formed from geographically dispersed firms. In recognition of the potential improvements to be gained through an integrated approach to project information used throughout the design, documentation, construction and operation processes, substantial research is underway in Australia to "close the loop" of information flows between designers and constructors. The paper will explore and discuss both the technology platform in terms of information and communications technology (mobile, high-speed and wide area networking linking the design and engineering offices with the construction site) and the information platform in terms of the content of communications between project stakeholders and the requisite information (traditional spatial as well as non-spatial data) of key concern to the stakeholders at various stages of the project lifecycle. The paradigm shift that has occurred over recent years from stand-alone personal computing (which reinforced fragmentation) to mobile and Wide Area networked computing now provides a platform capable of promoting integration, accessibility and co-operation within the sector with attendant gains in efficiency. A minimum requirement to achieve these gains is access to the right information (not just simple data) at the desired level of scale and detail for a particular stakeholder’s view - information which once collected can be stored and refined and then held for use elsewhere on the project without loss and without the need for subsequent re-entry. The information needs to be available quickly and easily, that is at the right time and in the right location for maximum benefit and project efficiency. Demonstration collaborative systems to support interactive Computer Aided Design and information exchange between project stakeholders such as architects, various engineers (electrical, hydaulic, mechanical, structural) and project managers, in an innovative collaborative manner have become available to bring dispersed project members together electronically. Such systems allow project members attached to a network to undertake a range of information access and exchange from simple e-mail; through on-site access to central project data sources via handheld computers; right through to the use of optional live (or pre-recorded) video to enhance collaboration. Using communications infrastructure, this functionality can be shared in various ways - in a corporate-wide environment between regional and/or interstate offices within a company, or in a consortium situation (between offices of a consortium working together on a specific construction project). The questions then arise as to how such systems fit into industry practice, and how the industry might adapt to embrace new opportunities provided by such technological advances. Ease of access to up-to-date, accurate project information for a range of project stakeholders is being extended through research in the US and Australia to close the loop between some of the stakeholders, and this will be discussed in detail in the paper. As well, the progress of industry-based support for a level of interoperability for building and construction information by organisations such as the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI Australasian chapter) will also be discussed, plus the likely impact of the adoption of Industry Foundation Classes in the Australian building and construction industry in areas such as the design life for buildings based on durability of materials.

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Full text: content.pdf (719,511 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.057235) class.environment (0.023003) class.synthesis (0.022896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Aleš Mrkela & Danijel Rebolj

Automated construction schedule creation using project information model

Abstract: In this paper we will propose a method of using a project information model (PIM) for creating construction schedules. In the paper we will briefly review current available scheduling possibilities, which use combination of BIM and scheduling software. We realized that BIM lacks user specific data that is vital for proper schedule creation and has, on the other hand, too complex structure and software tools for planning personnel to understand. Through the use of simple 3D model viewer, user specific data and BIM, we are proposing a novel approach of schedule estimation in construction, which we call project information model (PIM). PIM is the process that is based on internal logics, that creates the estimated schedule and resource usage. After the PIM process, the automatically created schedule is included in BIM and made available to project managers and other construction stakeholders, to coordinate and carry out activities.

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Full text: content.pdf (279,466 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Alfredo F. Serpell, José M. Rueda

Modeling a project scope using a case-based reasoning approach

Abstract: The availability of a good, complete scope definition in the early stages of a project is widely recognized by industry practitioners as a key factor for overall project success. This paper presents a Project Scope Modeling Methodology for computerized decision support during the definition of a new project scope. The methodology is based on the effective reutilization of historical project scope definitions through the application of Case Based Reasoning (CBR), an Artificial Intelligence approach. In CBR, the previous experiences are reused in solving new situations re-ducing the complexities of modeling reasoning processes. By using CBR, the scope modeling methodology helps to find and reuse the most relevant historical information, allowing to easily consult and combine information from multiple scope definitions in a computerized environment. The resulting scope definitions are ready to serve as input information for different planning purposes. The application for conceptual cost estimating is discussed.

Keywords: project, scope, planning, modeling, case-based reasoning, methodology

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Full text: content.pdf (529,639 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Allweyer T, Babin-Ebell T, Leinenbach S, Scheer A W

Model-based re-engineering in the European construction industry

Abstract: Due to increasing competition, the European construction industry is forced to improve their business processes and support them with integrated information systems. Approaches for Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) from stationary industries need to be adapted to the specific requirements of the construction industry. For being successful, BPR requires the use of powerful methods, tools and procedures. The Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) is presented as a framework for BPR, integrating business aspects with IT development. BPR projects can be improved by the use of pre-defined industry-specific reference models. The application of the ARIS framework to the construction industry is currently demonstrated in the European research project CORE (Construction Companies Processes Re-engineering). The CORE approach and its results are demonstrated with examples from project planning and management.

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Full text: content.pdf (85,237 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.030342) class.strategies (0.022992) class.impact (0.015474)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Alonso J M, Alvarruiz F, Hernandez V, Vidal A M

HPC in the building construction sector

Abstract: In the context of the HIPERCOSME project (1) (ESPRIT project 20059), the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) in collaboration with Spanish partners, developed a new High Performance Computing (HPC) demonstrator to calculate Reinforced Concrete Building Structures. Starting from a sequential software package, the objective of that project was to develop a portable parallel software package, able to cope with large scale problems and more realistic models (more information could be obtained in http://wwwcopa.dsic.upv.es/copa_eng.html). The performance of the prototype was analysed by means of a test battery composed of 4 real buildings. The performance of the prototype was compared to that of the original sequential package, showing that the former was from 20 up to 60 times faster than the latter. Besides, since a trial and error process must be carried out, the best and cheapest structural solution can be obtained. This leads to a reduction of the cost of the constructive elements and an increase in safety. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the code performance, a 3D approach to the problem of computing the building structure can be performed. Hardware and software requirements for this prototype are very common.The parallel platform can be a cluster of Ethernet linked PC's running under an easily available operating system such as LINUX (public domain) and the PVM passing message environment (public domain also). Moreover, the application is portable and can be run on other computers and parallel systems. Thus, in the context of the project, five Workshops were organised to promote the results in the European regions where the project partners belonged to. In these Workshops, Demonstration Actions were carried out with the presence of different small and medium size construction enterprises of each region. Co-operation among the partners led to contacts with new construction companies interested in the HPCN framework. As a consequence, six Assessment Studies were developed with European construction companies from Spain, Portugal, France and Greece, in order to understand the needs of the European market. UPV is the Valencian Community node of HIPERTTN. This technological Transfer Node is part of the METIER action in the HPCN PST activities of the IV ESPRIT Programme. TTN's try to stimulate the technology transfer and dissemination of the results of the HPCN projects in Europe. As a consequence, a Construction Sector Group has been recently created in this TTN Network. In the full paper, we will describe the technical work developed in the project, both from the point of view of the computational tools and the experience of transference of technology to the Construction Sector.

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Full text: content.pdf (51,870 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.030939) class.bestPractise (0.026703) class.communication (0.025338)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Amor R, Hosking J, Mugridge W

A declarative approach to inter-schema mappings

Abstract: The requirements for the specification of mappings between tools in an integrated and interactive design system are described in this paper. The declarative mapping language, VML, is introduced. VML allows a high level, bidirectional specification of mappings between two arbitrary schemas. To illustrate the utility of VML, a demonstration system consisting of plan definition and code conformance tools is integrated via a common data model using VML mappings. The VML mappings are capable of handling both relational and object-oriented style schemas as well as interactive and batch style design tools. We illustrate the use of VML to specify correspondences between classes, conditional application of correspondences, different styles of equivalence, initialisation conditions as well as method handling for interactive systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,779 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.030558) class.software development (0.027038) class.represent (0.019168)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Anastasiya Yurchyshyna, Catherine Faron Zucker, Nhan Le Thanh, Celson Lima, Alain Zarli

Towards an ontology-based approach for conformance checking modeling in construction

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of a formal ontological approach of conformance models for regulations in Construction aiming at answering the research question: “is an IFC-represented building project compliant to a set of construction rules?” The study analyses three key subtasks: (i) transformation of the IFC of the construction project; (ii) regulations formalisation; (iii) conformance checking reasoning. While analysing the IFC model redundancy and/or insufficiency for conformance checking reasoning, we suggest an intermediate RDF-based model, semantically en-riched and regulation-oriented. The regulation formalisation is studied under two viewpoints: the formalisation of pa-per-based regulation texts to be automatically used in reasoning and the development of the representation of ontology-based regulations. The construction rules are represented as a set of rules which premise and conclusion are RDF graphs. The conformance checking starts from the alignment of the construction project ontologies to the prem-ise/conclusion ontologies of the construction rule. Then, the checking in construction is seen as reasoning in terms of the corresponding RDF graphs. The paper concludes with a preliminary conceptual framework based on Semantic Web technologies modeling the conformance checking problem, as well as the technical solutions for its implementation. The respective architecture and future challenges of the work are also discussed.

Keywords: conformance checking, ontologies in construction, e-regulations, construction project conformance to regulations, semantic web in construction

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Full text: content.pdf (428,706 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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