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Amor R, Hosking J, Mugridge W

A declarative approach to inter-schema mappings

Abstract: The requirements for the specification of mappings between tools in an integrated and interactive design system are described in this paper. The declarative mapping language, VML, is introduced. VML allows a high level, bidirectional specification of mappings between two arbitrary schemas. To illustrate the utility of VML, a demonstration system consisting of plan definition and code conformance tools is integrated via a common data model using VML mappings. The VML mappings are capable of handling both relational and object-oriented style schemas as well as interactive and batch style design tools. We illustrate the use of VML to specify correspondences between classes, conditional application of correspondences, different styles of equivalence, initialisation conditions as well as method handling for interactive systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,068,779 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.030558) class.software development (0.027038) class.represent (0.019168)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


J Amann, M Flurl, J R Jubierre, A Borrmann

An Approach to Describe Arbitrary Transition Curves in an IFC-Based Alignment Product Data Model

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Peter Katranuschkov, Matthias Weise, Ronny Windisch, Sebastian Fuchs, Raimar J. Scherer

BIM-Based Generation of Multi-Model Views

Abstract: Building information modelling (BIM) introduces a new work paradigm that enables improved interoperability and better coordination of AEC processes. The current IFC standard provides an excellent core reference model for that purpose, together with a growing number of supporting domain extensions. However, generation of task-specific model views from a general-purpose BIM is still a difficult problem. Efforts related to the development of an Information Delivery Manual (IDM) and Model View Definitions (MVD) suggest solutions but reveal also gaps that need to be overcome. This includes: (1) more flexible tool-supported specification of domain model views, (2) mechanisms for generation of (ad-hoc) views on object instance level, and (3) multi-model views, combining BIM data with data from other (non BIM) models, such as costs, equipment, supply chain etc. nD-modelling, extending BIM, only partially gives answers to these issues.In this paper we describe a new approach for the generation of multi-model views that meets the above requirements. It is based on the use of an open IFC toolset developed at the University of Weimar and a formal model subset definition schema (GMSD) initially developed by two of the authors. With GMSD and an associated editing tool it is possible to define arbitrary model views on class level, including a subset of IFC classes, attribute constraints (such as wall thickness > 14cm) as well as partial or full tracing of the object relationships. We extend these definitions on instance level by applying a set of geometric, topological and semantic queries that are resolved at runtime. Moreover, using XML schema based representations we provide for simultaneous import of BIM and non BIM data that can be queried, selected and filtered via harmonised cross-model requests. With the same approach, comparison or merging of BIM model views is also possible.

Keywords: BIM, IFC, model filtering, multi-model views, BuildingSMART

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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R-P Mundani, H-J Bungartz & S Giesecke

Integrating evacuation planning into an octree-based CSCW framework for structural engineering

Abstract: In addition to classical topics such as CAD or statics' simulations, design processes in structural engineering often deal with aspects related to the later usage of buildings. One important and not negligible point of view to be examined and to be considered deals with the suitability of buildings during emergency situations as the evacuation of people in case of fire or terrorist activities. Deriving a connection graph from any arbitrary CAD model to be used for shortest-path algorithms, the graph can also be coupled to cellular automata for the simulation of people streaming to the building's exits for evacuation. These kind of simulation reveals bottlenecks of the architectural design. As geometric alterations might interfere with the building's statics, for instance, by integrating aspects of peoples' evacuation into a CSCW framework global consistency between all experts and all different tasks can be assured.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Shanmuganayagam V

Optimization of resource cost based on availability

Abstract: Project management software packages carry out resources planning on the basis that the allocation of any scarce resource is constrained by two levels of availability: the Normal Availability and the Total or Maximum Availability. Giving the usual interpretation to these two levels of availability, two types of inaccuracies can be detected in the resource cost computations. Firstly, the cost of unused resources below the normal availability is ignored. Secondly, the resources in excess of the normal availability are provided at the same unit cost as those within the normal avaialability. The software packages such as Hornet Project Management report identical resource costs irrespective of the chosen levels of normal and total availabilities because of these inaccuracies. Thus, the planner lacks an appropriate criterion for selecting the optimum levels of resource availability. The task of finding the optimum levels would be an operational research problem, the solution of which may not be easy to obtain. This paper describes a method that enables the planner to compute the real resource cost after eliminating the errors and to select the two levels such that the real cost is a minimum, The optimization process is carried out within the environment using a program compiled in the language of the software. The application of the method is illustrated with the resource planning for a construction project of 30 activities using the Hornet project management software. The variation of the real cost with the total availability indicates the existence of two distinct minimum cost solutions - one corresponding to a time-limited resource levelling schedule of the unlimited resources situation and the other to a resource scheduling schedule under a limited resources situation. The real cost is a minimum for a specific value of normal availability for the two optimum total availability values. An arbitrary choice of the norrnal and total availability levels could lead to the real cost being higher by amounts varying between 10 and 30 percent.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,249,729 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.016545) class.software development (0.009462) class.software-machine (0.008249)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


V. Bazjanac

Implementation of semi-automated energy performance simulation: building geometry

Abstract: The methodology for semi-automatic building energy performance (BEP) simulation eliminates arbitrary decisions from the simulation process. Based on the use of IFC-based BIM, its key feature is the automatic transformation of data from their original source and formatting to what is needed in BEP simulation, per unambiguous data transformation rules that cannot be manually manipulated; it results in semi-automatic generation of input for simulation. When implemented, the methodology reduces preparation of simulation input for a building from days, weeks or months to minutes, eliminates human error, and makes simulation preparation virtually free of cost and resource consumption. GST/IDF Generator tool semi-automatically transforms building geometry properly defined in IFC format into ready-to-execute building geometry defined in input format for “whole building” BEP simulation tools like EnergyPlus. The tool’s performance was publicly demonstrated live in the OGC AECOO-1 Testbed in March and May 2009.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Vladimir Bazjanac

IFC BIM-BASED METHODOLOGY FOR SEMI-AUTOMATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE SIMULATION

Abstract: Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances.A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated.This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).

Keywords: Simulation, simulation input, IFC-based BIM, interoperable software, data transformation, rules, methodology, semi-automated process

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Yasufuku K

Visualization of crowd flow in large-scale facility using agent-based simulation

Abstract: To prevent crowd accidents in large-scale facilities that are available to the general public, it is important to share information on safety measures among organizers, the police, the fire department, and government officials. In this study, we present a crowd simulation system that is capable of sharing visual information on the estimated flow of the crowd and that can be used when the safety plan for a facility is being developed. The simulation is agent based and aims to reproduce the macroscopic phenomena of a crowd flow, especially in a queue, by modeling the microscopic interactions between the agents. This crowd behavior model is divided into three parts: route choice, crowd movement, and queue formation. Route choice is implemented using a simple graphical user interface (GUI) - this enables the choice of an arbitrary route to guide each agent. Crowd movement is based on a social force model. In addition, we implement a queue formation model in which the route to a destination is changed according to the length of the queue in a specific area. The results are as follows. We calibrated the parameter of the simulation and reproduced the density of a crowd flow based on empirical observations. Queuing behavior was also verified for the emergence of the macroscopic phenomena of stop-and-go waves. Moreover, we applied this simulation to evaluate crowd safety for a special event held in a large-scale commercial facility. We propose a new method for safety experts and non-experts to share visual information about the flow of crowds.

Keywords: Autonomous agents,crowd flow,visual simulation,large-scale facility

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Yasumuro Y,Kusakabe S,Dan H,Fuyuki M

3d barrier-free verification for wheelchair access

Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology for identifying barriers encountered by wheelchair users in daily life spaces. Currently, barrier-free designs are required not only for newly constructed buildings, but also when renovating existing facilities and public spaces. However, the arrangement of furniture, equipment, and many other objects in a space often impose barriers, and even the simple bumps and steps on pathways can obstruct wheelchair passage. Furthermore, it is often difficult for administrators to envisage the full reality of barriers in their facilities because potential obstacles can be created inadvertently by a variety of objects that have complicated three-dimensional (3D) geometries. In such cases, their existence will normally remain unknown until someone actually tries to transit the area using a wheelchair. Our approach aims to capture the overall dimensions of target spaces by collecting and combining depth images taken using a hand-held RGB-D camera (also commonly referred to as a ranging camera), and then to navigate a virtual wheelchair through the target space in a computer simulation to check for obstacles. The practical egomotion capabilities of RGB-D camera sensors within actual environments make it possible to achieve real-time simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) functionality, which is necessary for creating accurate 3D location maps. The Microsoft Kinect™ sensor, which was originally designed as a user interface for home-use video games, is a good example for a low-cost, compact RGB-D camera. Since the Kinect device is sufficiently compact for use when capturing arbitrary objects in situ, we adopted it for use in our study and applied a SLAM technique to perform barrier checks. Our simulation employs 3D projections of all objects and wheelchair transit volumes onto a floor plane in order to detect potential obstacles. We implemented our proposed method on a laptop personal computer (PC) and collected data from actual classroom and common space locations in a university. The experimental results of our method showed effective functionality in terms of practicality and usability.

Keywords: Wheelchair user,Barrier-free,RGB-D camera,Free-hand scan,Obstacle check,3D model

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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