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Alvise Simondetti

Designer’s toolkit 2020: a vision for the practice

Abstract: Designer’s toolkit is rapidly changing and design practices need a shared vision of what the short, me-dium and long term might be. With this in mind we interviewed twenty-four thought leaders in the design community worldwide. Four big ideas emerged from the interviews: transferring technologies from other industries has provided great bene-fits, but it has also generated the need to transfer processes; changes in the way we build drives changes in the de-signer’s desktop, including the representations that designers use to communicate; greater gains are achieved by focus-sing on the interplay of specialised algorithms; “just on time” design data improves design. Four possible contexts for the designer’s toolkit are described: the proprietor aimed at increasing productivity, the open-source aimed at increasing IT driven creativity, either more or less engaged with fabrication. Finally, the paper concludes by proposing what designers ought to be doing today. Actions include educating specialist toolmakers, custodian and math modellers; integrating computer controlled machine workshops into designers’ project spaces; the automation of repetitive design tasks; supporting communities around software tools and store project data according to geospatial co-ordinates.

Keywords: Design community, technology transfer, process transfer, designer's desktop, representation, communication

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Full text: content.pdf (451,568 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Christopher Raghubar, Nima Shahbazi, Brandon Bortoluzzi, Aijun An and J.J. McArthur

Integrating Visual Analytics and Machine Learning Into BIM-Enabled Facilities Management.

Abstract: Building Information Modelling is becoming increasingly used for Asset Information Management in Facility Operations, where semantic and relational information are of primary importance. "Big Data" analytics tools provide new opportunities within this domain to classify and synthesize data, integrate it with the Computer-Aided Facilities Management system, and develop predictive models to assign priority and resources to address issues arising. The resulting information integrated into building information models provides a powerful tool for facilities management teams to prioritize and streamline operations and maintenance tasks.This paper presents the development, comparison, and application of two supervised machine learning models to classify and evaluate maintenance requests generated both from within the maintenance team and occupant complaints. Three algorithms: Term Frequency (TF), Term Frequency-Inverse Category Frequency (TF-ICF), and Random Forest are used to analyse the text of the maintenance request description and assign problem types to each. Approximately 150,000 historical maintenance requests were used for model development and the models have overall prediction accuracies of 69%, 70%, and 90% for problem type prediction, respectively.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Building Information Modelling, Visual Analytics, Facility Management, Predictive Models, Big Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0143

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Hinz O

Using mechanical models as services within object-oriented distributed systems

Abstract: Components are stand-alone software modules which can be used by other components, independent of their programming language and process borders. Components offer their functions through a public interface, called service. The communication between components is controlled by an object request broker (ORB). One of the most common ORBs is ActiveX from Microsoft Co. For software in civil and structural engineering there are no really components available yet. The problem with components is that they should be designed for a big number of reusing cases. This paper shows how mechanical models can be used to define engineering components and they can be used in several concepts of distributed software environments (intra- and internet).

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Ito K, Kano Y

3-D graphical simulation for crane planning using object-orientedbuilding product model

Abstract: Temporary Facilities are the most expensive resources at a constructionsite. In particular, the selection, positioning, planning and operation of acrane for a construction site control influences the overall constructionplanning and selection of the combination of construction methods. InJapan, at most construction sites around or inside the large city, craneoperation is one of the big issues in determining the combination ofconstruction methods because of the site constraint restrictions.Therefore, the utilization of a crane directly influences theconstructability and productivity of its related construction operations. Itis also important for a construction planner, or construction manager, toconsider and to evaluate the construction work plans, and constructioncosts. This is so that they provide for the safety of the laborers, reducingconstruction costs, and maintaining the quality of the facilities. Duringthe crane planning, any possible lack of equipment power and/orresource bottlenecks, should be identified.On the other hand, an object-oriented product model is very powerful indescribing each building element as an object, including its attributes forthe crane simulation. Especially for the selection and positioning of thecrane for a construction operation, the loading ability of the crane orinterference between the elements and boom of the crane should beevaluated by using the location and attributes of building elements, suchas the weight of elements or materials of elements. Therefore, theauthors propose the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning,with an object-oriented building product model.This paper presents the development, present status and future directionsof the 3-D graphical simulation system for crane planning using theobject-oriented building product model. The work described in this paperis still in progress. The paper will conclude with a layout of future plansfor 3-D graphical simulation systems as the tool of virtual construction.

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Full text: content.pdf (211,278 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Karim Farghaly, Henry Abanda, Christos Vidalakis and Graham Wood

BIM Big Data System Architecture for Asset Management: A Conceptual Framework

Abstract: Effective decision making in the AEC/FM industry has been based increasingly on an exponential growth of data extracted from different sources and technologies. It has been argued that Building Information Modelling (BIM) can handle this information efficiently, acting as a data pool where data can be stored, managed and integrated. Indeed, a BIM platform based on cloud computing and Big Data can manage the storage and flow of data, as well as extract knowledge from Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Internet of Things (IoT), asset management, energy management and materials and resources databases. Furthermore, it can also provide an opportunity for multiple users to view, access and edit the data in 3D environment. This paper describes the requirements and different components of a BIM Big Data platform for facilitating management of building assets. This is achieved by firstly, conducting a critical peer review to ascertain Big Data definitions and stages, and also to define the critical BIM requirements for the Big Data platform. At the crux, this paper presents a conceptual framework for developing a Big Data platform for BIM which incorporates suitable tools and techniques needed to export, store, analyse and visualise BIM data.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Big Data, Asset Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0163

Full text: content.pdf (805,988 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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M Betts & J Yang

The Significance and Priorities of IT in Sustainable Construction Development

Abstract: On a worldwide basis, sustainable construction is increasingly recognised as the primary challenge faced by the development industry. It requires a multi-faceted approach and a magnitude of professional intertwining, in contrast to the current pockets of fragmented knowledge development in areas such as indoor air quality and grey-water management. There is a need to consider the big picture concerning more complex processes, decision making, integration, collaboration, and coordination between hierarchies both internal and external to the industry. The handling of these issues can rely on information technology as a proven tool for managing projects and industry development for construction. Existing IT applications for sustainable development have been limited, with isolated studies on energy modelling, intelligent control of systems, and assessment tools for environmental ratings. There needs to be an emphasis on developing a common IT vision for sustainable development and action plans for strategic implementation. There should be expansion of IT application areas prioritising on benchmarking, simulation, process modelling, decision support, communication and education of sustainable construction principles and practices. The level of success in this endeavour will depend on how we demonstrate IT's significance to sustainable development and how we prioritise sustainability constraints appropriate for IT to enable alleviation. This can be aided by the promotion of exemplar projects and international alliancing, as outlined in this paper through some QUT initiatives.

Keywords: IT, sustainable construction, management, industry development

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Series: w78:2004 (browse)
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Mohamad Kassem and Jennifer Li

Big Data Applications in Built Environment: Towards a Use Foundation Model

Abstract: The term Ôbig dataÕ is increasingly permeating the current debate over the present and the future of our built environment. There are heightened expectations about the role big data may or can play in enabling new applications and decisions across the whole lifecycle of assets, from early design phase through construction to operation and end-of-life. It is therefore necessary to analyse the state-of-the-art in big data applications in built environment. This paper presents a structured and systematic literature review on this emerging theme. The results are quantitatively analysed using network and clustering techniques. The research identified distinct clusters within two lenses: (1) the project lifecycle (i.e., design/planning, construction, and operation), and (2) the built environment hierarchy scale (i.e., component/product, building/facility, site, neighbourhood, region and city). Six clusters of big data applications across the two lenses were identified: energy management, traffic management, design & planning, onsite construction activities, city-wide services, and smart cities.The clusters show the level of research intensity around each of their nodes and the connections between the nodes which indicate the emergence of new avenues of investigations. These results represent the first steps towards developing a descriptive ÔUse Foundation model' for big data applications in built environment.

Keywords: Built Environment, Big Data, Internet of Things, Smart Data

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0220

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Pakanen J E, Hakkarainen K., Karhukorpi K., Jokela P, Peltola T, Sundström J

A Low-Cost Internet Connection for Intelligent Appliances of Buildings

Abstract: To date, the Internet has been a network connecting mostly desktop PCs, but soon all kinds of intelligent devices containing a small microprocessor will exchange data over the Internet. This will have a big impact on buildings and their technical systems, which now include a number of processor-based devices. Internet connectivity implies a totally new way to control and manage these devices. The potential benefits will be significant. Therefore, the need to design low-cost Internet appliances is worldwide today, and many commercial products are already available. This paper proposes a new technical approach to connect small processor devices to the Internet. The approach makes possible a connection both through the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and the Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) network. The connection is based on networking software programmed in the processor device and a gateway server, which together transfer data between the PSTN and other communication networks. The data communication utilizes the Short Message Service (SMS) and the Extended Machine Interface (EMI) protocol. Besides the low cost, the proposed system has several benefits, such as uncomplicated structure and operation, standardized data transfer, and an ability to be embedded in an 8-bit processor device. Yet, the approach does not require high-speed data communication. Thus, it is especially suitable for applications controlling slow and non-critical building processes. The proposed system was demonstrated by designing a microprocessor device interfaced to an Air Handling Unit (AHU). Sensor data from the AHU was transferred to the Internet through the PSTN and the GSM networks. In addition, a Web-user interface was created for the remote control of the AHU. The results of the pilot project were encouraging and will be used as a basis for further development of the system

Keywords: Technical systems of buildings, HVAC, Internet appliance, Web appliance, remote control, monitoring.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/3 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Peter Johansson, Kaj Granath

Using Construction Deficiency Reports and Product Models as Systematic Feedback to Avoid Design Errors Caused by Lack of Knowledge

Abstract: Design errors cause a big part of the defects occurring in production and maintenance. Earlier research has shown that the most common cause for design errors is lack of knowledge. Product-model based CAD-systems are increasingly used in structural engineering practice and it is well known that these systems reduce the design errors, mostly through better visualization and collision checks. The design errors caused by lack of knowledge are however, in most cases, not prevented using product-model based CAD-systems as we do today. This paper describes a case study of design errors where the structural engineer is involved. The aim of the study was to find new ways to prevent design errors using the product-model based technique. The study shows that the use of product-model based CAD-systems have a great potential in preventing design errors, especially co-ordination errors. But the study also shows that many of the design errors caused by lack of knowledge could be prevented in future projects if the design errors were documented and made available to the structural engineer in the design process and that this could prevent as many design errors as is prevented by using product-model based CAD-systems today. The study shows that 90% of the design errors that could be prevented in this way were situated where two or more elements meet. It was also found in the study that the information needed about the design errors could be retrieved from construction deficiency reports. Based on these findings it is argued that design errors, caused by lack of knowledge, can be prevented in future projects by making the information from the construction deficiency reports available and retrievable for the structural engineer by indexing them using information about the elements meeting where the design error occurred.

Keywords: Structural Engineering, Design Errors, Product-models, Feedback, Knowledge reuse

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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R. Myllymäki

Business-driven IT Strategy in Multi-Business and Multi-National Companies

Abstract: The complexity of IT strategy preparation grows when the company has more than one business and more than one operational country. This situation is common among big construction companies. This paper divides the strategy process into three parts (the Trend Work, the IT Mapping and the Strategy Work) and the entity of IT strategies to four parts (IT Utilisation strategies, the Corporate IT Strategy, IT Service Strategies and IT Principles) to ease the preparation. The approach is based on the development of relationships between business and IT and it concludes other modern IT strategy preparation systems. This paper contains also experiences about preparation of IT strategies earned in YIT Corporation in 2001-2008. Keywords: IT Strategy, IT Utilisation Strategy, Business-IT Relationship, Business IT, IT Infrastructure, Trend Work.

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Full text: content.pdf (369,989 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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