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D. Chitchian & S.I. Sariyildiz

A Pattern Based 3D Modeling Tool

Abstract: Historically human beings have tried to decorate their environment with various elements such as symbols, shapes, textures and so on. Therefore, in various cultures and periods beautiful patterns and textures have been created by humans. Geometry helps us not only to understand also to recreate existing patterns in nature. Our aim was developing a 3D modeling tool for patterns deployment in design. Not to reinvent the wheel, we based our development on Maya one of the best existing graphical modeling software. Developed tool eases and facilitates deployment of patterns in design. Our toolís features and functions help users to create patterns, to transform patterns into design objects such as building blocks, green areas, water ponds and so on, also to create final design from a few initial patterns using some kind of spatial transformations. We do believe introducing this tool to the community of designers, like architects, urban planners and site constructors, will be appreciated by them as a desirable modeling tool they need.

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Full text: content.pdf (469,990 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Edwin Dado, Reza Beheshti, Sander van Nederveen

IT education and utilization within the upcoming shared master of science in construction management and engineering in the Netherlands

Abstract: In March 2004, the Task Force Sector Plan presented their final report to the State Secretary of Educa-tion, Culture and Science. In this report, the three universities of technology (3TU) proposed how they aim to create a single federation of Dutch universities of technology by combining their education and research programmes in order to enhance knowledge valorisation. In addition, five shared Master of Science (MSc.) programmes - not yet offered in The Netherlands but considered to be essential for the Dutch knowledge economy - were proposed, including the MSc. Construction Management and Engineering (CME) programme. The MSc. CME programme, realized at the three 3TU locations, consists of two blocks: (1) a general block and (2) a specialization block. The general block covers the topics that provide a sound basis for further specialization at one of the three locations of the 3TU. Within the general block Ė but moreover in the specialization block offered in Delft Ė contains a large amount of IT education and utilization. This paper will discuss the overall programme of MSc. CME programme and the development process of the MSc. CME specialization in Delft, with a special emphasis on the IT related subjects.

Keywords: master programme, construction management, IT, education

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Full text: content.pdf (199,106 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Georgios Hadjidemetriou and Symeon E. Christodoulou

Pavement Anomalies Detection and Classification Using Entropic Texture Segmentation and Support Vector Machines

Abstract: Presented herein is a vision-based method for the detection of anomalies on roadway pavements, utilizing low-cost video acquisition and image processing of road surface frames collected by a smartphone (or camera) located on a vehicle moving in a real-life urban network, along with entropy-based texture segmentation filters, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The proposed system, which has been developed in MATLAB, pre-processes video streams for the identification of video frames of changes in image-entropy values, isolates these frames and performs texture segmentation to identify pixel areas of significant changes in entropy values, and then classifies and quantifies these areas using SVMs. The developed SVM is trained and tested by feature vectors generated from the histogram and two texture descriptors of non-overlapped square blocks, which constitute images that includes ‘‘patch’’ and ‘‘no-patch’’ areas. The outcome is composed of block-based and image-based classification, as well as measurement of the patch area.

Keywords: Pavement Condition Evaluation, Road Anomaly Detection, Vision-Based, Entropy, Texture Segmentation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0191

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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L Zhang, R Issa

Ontology Based Partial Building Information Model Extraction

Abstract: The research and application of building information modeling (BIM) has been focused on the entire project and the complete life cycle. However, the daily routine on a construction job site has specific requirements and bears certain limitations regarding the usage of information stored in a BIM model. The limitations include scarcity of computing power and trained personnel. One of the requirements is to view a partial model instead of the original, complete model. The partial model may be defined by certain location parameters such as storey numbers and/or building grid lines. In this paper we discuss an ontology-based method to extract a partial model from a complete BIM model. The partial model, as well as the complete model, should be defined in industry foundation classes (IFC) format, which is the widely supported open standard data exchange format for BIM. Theextraction is based on an IFC-based ontology which defines the necessary building blocks of a valid IFC model and the rules of extraction. The whole process is to be implemented as a Web service allowing remote accessibility from various computing platforms. The Web service system could also be linked to other construction software applications for automating construction management functions.

Keywords: Ontology, BIM, Web Services, partial models, IFC

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Full text: content.pdf (233,318 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Manfred Breit, Manfred Vogel, Fritz Ha_ubi, Fabian Ma_rki, Marco Soldati, La_szlo_ Istva_n Etesi, Nicky Hochmuth, Andreas Walther

ENHANCEMENT OF VIRTUAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS

Abstract: In this paper we report about a three-tier applied R&D approach for the Enhancement of Virtual Design and Construction methods at the Institute of 4D Technologies UAS, North¨¨western Switzerland (i4Ds). In collaboration with the CAD vendor and developer cadwork informatik AG our research focuses on technology, its intro¨duction into the market the effects and difficulties of the tool use and the induced process changes. We will describe the methodlogy, the expected outcomes of the enhancements, the research approach, initial findings and the further proceedings.In the first tier cadworks introduces an intuitive integrated 4D modeler called (LexoCad or Baubit CAD) for contractors which is commercially available since one year. Analogue to playing with building blocks users create 3D building models and 4D phasing models for the construction of the building directly from 2D pdf drawings. The expected outcome are that the virtual building blocks serve as a test-bed for constructability analyzes, enhanced planning reliability, better coordination and communication, optimized procurement and wide-spread use in practice. The next two tiers of VDC enhancements are currently developed at i4Ds. For the second tier we introduce a semantic, flexible, database-backed, object-oriented data structure for hierarchically structured Product, Organization and Process models (POP models) with an enhanced intuitive 3D/4D graphical user interface for the rapid generation of design alternatives. Users can easily propagate information to related property sets of construction elements and assemblies. Behavior methods (scripts) can be assigned for a variety of tasks e.g. BOM creation, construction method modeling, creation of cost performance predictions etc. This approach technology-wise moves the model management from the modeler or viewer components to the data base domain. The flexible hierarchies not only allow users to manually restructure and rearrange the model to their needs but enable automatic AI optimizers to even alter the construction method e.g. timber element, precast concrete or masonry walls etc. The expected outcomes are a pro-active 4D planning, rapid generation, comparison and evaluation of POP- design- alternatives, derivation von case from existing designs, easy and effective integration of client information into POP models, creating performance predictions (quality, time, cost, risk, etc.) from this models, easy creation of 4D sub-models for knowledge transfer for inter-disciplinary cooperation.In the third tier we introduce a novel process design concept which we named Process Design Patterns (PDPs). They are based on Christopher Alexander's (1977) concept of design pattern as a formal way of documenting successful solutions to problems and as templates describing how to solve problems of a particular domain. In a study, we called Process Archeology, we chose a recently finished four storey residential concrete building and reconstructed and re-modeled the over-all building processes with an inter-disciplinary team. Therefore we created the necessary 3D-, 4D- and process- and organization- models with commercial available modeling tools. We were able to derive one generic and seven specific PDPs for the whole erection of the building. We describe a strategy to apply PDPs directly on 3D building information models (BIM) to automate and optimize the planning process.

Keywords: Virtual Design and Construction, 4D Modeling, Product, Process and Organization Modeling and Simulation, Process Design Patterns

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Full text: content.pdf (386,476 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Najafi A A

Integrated computer-aided architectural and structural design

Abstract: A programme of research was carried out to provide an integrated design tool for interactive design of architectural layout and structural system of regular multistory buildings. The outline of the system is as follows. The user works with architectural spaces and defines the final arrangement of spaces in terms of geometry by drawing them in AutoCAD. The plan of designed spaces or "blocks" is used to generate a set of gridlines the intersections of which produce "nodes". Certain rules are applied to render the nodes into structural nodes forming the end points of structural members. Once the geometry of structure is defined, data is passed to a structural steel design module using an approximate method which generates the initial sizing of members. For a more accurate result, two sophisticated analysis programs are used for strength and serviceability. Conformance to standards is carried out by another module and due modifications are made to the structure. A cost estimate of the building structure is finally produced.

Keywords: integrated design, computer-aided building design, structural design, integrated CAL

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Series: itaec:2003 (browse)
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Rivard H, Fenves S J, Gomez N

An information model for multiple views of buildings

Abstract: The paper outlines an information model that organizes the wealth of data used and generated during the conceptual design stage. The building is represented as an assembly of entities with relationships among them. Each entity represents a meaningful concept to design participants such as a beam, a room or a structural frame. Each entity contains data about its design aspect, its function aspect and its behavior aspect. Furthermore, each entity stores its geometry, its topological relationships with other entities, its aggregation relationship (made-of and part-of) and a reference to the technology (a set of knowledge and procedures) that is used to derive it. The geometry and topological relationships for the entity are obtained from a non-manifold skeletal geometrical representation common across all views. Multiple views representation is supported by dividing the attributes of an entity into small cohesive subsets, which we call primitives. These primitives are then used as construction blocks to p-nt different views of the entity. The goal of this representation is two fold: to support casebased reasoning and to store the design data as it is generated during the conceptual design.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,509,932 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.026207) class.represent (0.023249) class.social (0.012766)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Scheer, Se_rgio; Ayres Filho, Cervantes; Azuma, Fabi_ola ;Beber, Michelle

CAD-BIM REQUERIMENTS FOR MASONRY DESIGN PROCESS OF CONCRETE BLOCKS

Abstract: The masonry constructive technique of concrete blocks is a practice that contributes for a high level of industrialization in construction in addition to achieve the rationalization in this sector. The achievement of these benefits demands some design features such as modular coordination, blocks rows details and well documented and precise specifications. One solution to meet these design features without causing agility reduction during the process is the use of CAD-BIM (Building Information Modeling), which applies modeling and visualization techniques already consolidated in other industry branches. Although the CAD- BIM brings improvements in the design process, it does not provide tools aimed directly to blocks masonry design, what can cause difficulties. The goal of this work is to identify these problems through a case study in a builder office sited in Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, which is specialized in building design of concrete blocks masonry. Based on the results of data collected in the case study and in the literature available was possible to develop a list of CAD-BIM requirements more suitable for this kind of design.

Keywords: CAD, BIM, concrete blocks masonry

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Full text: content.pdf (156,145 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Tracey Crosbie, John Broderick, Muneeb Dawood, Richard Charlesworth, Vladimir Vukovic, Michael Short and Nashwan Dawood

Integrating Technologies for Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings - A UK Case Study

Abstract: Flexibility in contemporary energy systems is predominantly delivered by fossil fuels. Low carbon energy services are required to avoid dangerous climate change, however, in the electricity sector, energy flows must be balanced instantaneously, and many renewable resources are either variable, uncertain or both. Demand Response (DR) enables consumers to play a significant role in the delivery of flexibility on the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during periods of stress or constraint. The value of DR to blocks of buildings depends on the telemetry and control technologies in existing building management systems and the potential revenue sources. To encourage the growth of DR services’ and reap the potential benefits, it is necessary to characterise the economic and environmental benefits of DR. The EU Horizon 2020 co-funded project “Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings” (DR-BOB: www.dr-bob.eu) aims to do just that. This paper describes the technical approach taken by the DR-BOB project at its Teesside University site, focussing on the challenges encountered and the solutions proposed for this city centre campus. It updates previous work (Crosbie et al, 2016) that has described the broader principles and technologies being evaluated at four sites across Europe.

Keywords: Demand Response (DR), Flexibility, Smart Grid, Electricity Networks, Blocks of Buildings

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0225

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