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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A.H. Olivier, K. Beucke, B. Firmenich, and G.C. van Rooyen

Consistent CAD - FEM Models On The Basis Of Object Versions And Bindings

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Full text: content.pdf (2,181,854 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Agger K

Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics

Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK. IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on. The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM building model from the CAD model. Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated generation of part of the objects in the building model. Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss strategies for FM and CAD.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,174,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036948) class.man-software (0.031639) class.communication (0.011701)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Ahmed V, Mahdjoubi L, Feng X, Leach M

The learning of CAD for construction: technical abilities or visual?

Abstract: The increasing demands of the construction industry for individuals with good IT skills add continuous pressures on higher education to improve their methods of teaching. CAD training, as an important part of IT training for construction students, is becoming an essential part of the curriculum in most built environment schools. However, general CAD training is mostly concerned with providing students with technical skills rather than the initial ability of spatial visualisation. Indeed, existing training methods of CAD applications, do not take into consideration students? learning styles, and the differences in their spatial visualisation abilities. Considering that CAD students need to perform various activities within CAD applications to develop an understanding of building concepts and components, their spatial visualisation abilities and their learning style, remain the main barriers. This paper identifies the learning strategies required to assist with the learning of 3D modelling and describes a new approach adopted to examine students' Special Visualisation Skills. The paper also describes innovative e-learning approaches developed to reinforce students' learning of 3D CAD, tracking their progress and highlighting qualitative measures of their effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D modelling, e-learning in construction, CAL, CAA

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Full text: content.pdf (595,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Aish R

Master architect: an object based architectural design and production system

Abstract: Master Architect is an object based CAD system which tightly integrates architectural modeling and drafting activities. The design elements within Master Architect have built-in architectural intelligence. The system includes a number of architectural oriented editing commands. The design elements are 'objects' which dynamically respond to these commands. This enables the architectural user to construct and dynamically edit a complex and realistic building model. Introduction

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Full text: content.pdf (1,157,432 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.026112) class.synthesis (0.025424) class.analysis (0.019438)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Akinci B, Staub S, Fischer M

Productivity and cost analysis based on a 4d model

Abstract: Four-dimensional (4D) CAD models are being used more and more frequently tovisualize the transformation of space over time. To date, these models are mostlypurely visual models. Any evaluation of a 4D model, e.g., whether it presents aworkable construction sequence, is left to the viewer. The evolution of 4D CADdemonstrates the ability to provide a tighter link between visualization andanalysis tools. In this paper, we discuss how an intelligent 4D model helpsidentify time-space conflicts between concurrent activities and provide assistancein calculating more realistic cost estimates. The 4D system (4D Work Planner)presented here is based on symbolic and graphic product and process models, andprovides both the visual and analytical feedback necessary to reengineerconstruction sequences.

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Full text: content.pdf (159,259 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Akinsola A, Dawood N, Hobbs B

Construction planning process improvement using information technology

Abstract: "Construction is a multi-organisation and interactive process. Successful completion of a project therefore depends on the accuracy, effectiveness and timing of communication and exchange of information and data between the supply chain. Unfortunately, the inefficiency of the existing method of communication has become a barrier to several innovative construction processes developed for the industry over the past four decades. Thus, research efforts and direction have since changed. Several studies now focusing on integration of the construction process with communication and standardisation of data exchange, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies. The capability of these technologies, object-oriented technology and the Internet has made a significant impact on other economic sector such as finance, manufacturing, insurance, etc., with significant improvement in performance and productivity. Thus the technology is available but the challenge is utilising the technology to develop method of improving the construction process. To ensure efficient utilisation of IT as enabling tools, formalisation and understanding of the construction processes are required. This will enable the identification of the problems and opportunities of the strategy, and its implementation and performance in practice. The paper presents a detailed model of pre-construction and construction planning processes, based on an on-going research project, that form the basis of the developed planning system. The detailed process mapping methodology using CASE tools and the associated integration of IT tools, as an enabler to aid and improve the planning process, are described. The system provides an interface for integration of CAD data, using IFC objects, within the system. The application of the system offers a promise of significant improvement in both pre-construction and construction processes."

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Full text: content.pdf (375,439 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.028439) class.environment (0.027790) class.impact (0.027062)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Amor R, Turk Z, Hyvarinen J, Finne C

CONNET: a gateway to Europe's construction information

Abstract: "The EC funded project CONNET (Construction Information Service Network, at http://www.connet.org/) has developed a set of Internet-based information services for Europe. These services are linked through a European gateway for the construction industry which provides a ""virtual technology park"", accessible to the whole industry regardless of national boundaries. The gateway provides mechanisms to link all information services for the construction industry, and to establish national gateways to services which can then inter-operate across Europe. The CONNET consortium is moving to establish the existing services in all European nations, and to encourage further existing or planned information services to be linked. A suite of five Internet based services has initially been developed, comprising: a technical information centre; a waste exchange centre; manufactured product services; a calculation and software centre; and an electronic news service as described below: 1. The Technical Information Centre provides a single point of entry to locate technical information from quality providers, initially in the UK. The centre draws upon information held by the major publishers in the UK, with over 200 identified to link into the service. Once a publication is identified a user is able to place an order to purchase, or browse, the item. An automated notification service for users, based on their areas of interest, is also available as part of this centre. 2. The Waste Exchange Centre extends the current UK based system to better enable the disposal and reuse of site waste across organisations Nationally and in Europe. Availability of, and requests for, waste materials are automatically matched in order to broker greater reuse of materials. 3. The Manufactured Product Service enables Finnish and export-market users to identify manufactured products which match their design specification by incorporating product attributes into the selection system. Users are able to identify certified products and drag-and-drop CAD information into their designs. 4. The Calculation and Software Centre provides the European entry point for information on all software products available for the civil engineering domain (over 3,900 collated to date). Online demonstrations, online purchase, and even pay-per-use software is available. 5. The Electronic News Service enables members of the construction industry to register an interest in specific topics and to be notified of any Internet published news that matches their interest. The news sources are drawn from the main information providers and professional institutes in the industry, both within the UK and Internationally. Currently over 14,300 Internet sites have been identified and indexed for this service. This paper describes the infrastructure which has been developed for the European gateway and the benefits it can offer to linked services within a single nation, or across Europe. The virtual technology park infrastructure developed in CONNET provides for user identification, centralised user profiling and profile management, automated and periodic user profile servicing, classification system management and mapping, discussion groups, secure communication and service validation, etc. The way in which these technology park services are able to be used and adapted in independent, but linked, national services is highlighted in the paper. The five individual services are also described briefly, highlighting the benefits they offer to the European construction industry and the possibilities they offer in terms of ensuring national services are inter-operable across all of Europe."

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Full text: content.pdf (1,226,313 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.collaboration (0.014414) class.communication (0.010000) class.man-software (0.007679)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Anadol Z, Akin O

Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery process

Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.

Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope changes

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Full text: content.pdf (480,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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