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A Mediavilla, A Romero, J Pérez,F J Mata

Energy efficiency assessment in urban environments using GIS

Abstract: Energy simulation tools are commonly used in building design processes. Their calculation methods are comprehensive and widely accepted. However, the increasing requirements imposed to comply with low emission urban scenarios demand a wider scope analysis, taking into account not only the building, but also the interactions between urban elements (buildings, green areas, urban lighting…). GIS technology seems suitable for this purpose, but current solutions do not include deep energy demand calculations. On the other hand, building simulation tools do not consider the city environment and terrain influence. To evaluate a district by manually adding single building simulations results is an overwhelming process, prone to errors and very time-consuming.In this scenario, urban planners demand Decision Support Systems that go beyond traditional building-scope simulation engines and consider both building and urban-level variables in order to assess the energy efficiency of the urban design.Aware of this issue, the platform presented in this paper fills this gap between building and city approaches. It consists of an ArcGIS customisation, implementing energy simulation models for radiation, energy demands, consumption, energy costs and CO2 emissions. The results are simulated and visualized at different levels (façades, buildings and city). Thus, it is possible to benchmark the district against a reference scenario and certify the sustainability of a district. It has been validated with a new urban development scenario in northern Spain.The platform seamlessly integrates CAD cartography, GIS geoprocessing and the calculation strength of excel sheets, enhanced with 3D energy mapping outputs which can be seen in Google Earth. It does not require deep technical knowledge, being suited for multicriteria analysis. Its modularity allows extending it with future extensions.

Keywords: GIS, energy efficiency, low carbon cities, urban planning, simulation

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Full text: content.pdf (228,375 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Bond A J

An object-oriented program for retaining wall design

Abstract: The paper describes the underlying architecture of an object-oriented computer program for embedded retaining wall design. The requirements of different codes of practice are implemented in a series of classes derived from an abstract base class Designstandard. Two intermediate classes define the particular features of limit-state and working-stress design standards. Each concrete class in the hierarchy represents a single code of practice. The paper explains how the program routes its calculations to the relevant derived class.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Brandon P, Watson I

An expert system for strategic maintenance planning

Abstract: Recent changes in legislation have made housing associations (HAs) more financially responsible for all aspects of maintenance of their new housing stock. Because of the levels of funding within HAs and the need to provide accommodation at a "fair rent,"the planning of maintenance, and the consequent planning of expenditure has never before been so vital. Moreover, most literature on maintenance, including government reports and research by professional bodies or academic institutions, identifies a need for improvement in decision making regarding building maintenance. The project has provided an expert system (ES) that assists maintenance and finance officers in strategic planning of maintenance. The system (called EMMY) is not a database for HAs building stock and their tenants, or a program that itemises maintenance jobs, handles invoices, and performs various accounting tasks. It is a strategic management tool. Whilethere are many programs in existence that estimate the life-cycle costs of buildings or provide maintenance management, they all share two major problems: They require voluminous data input to describe each building; They function as "black boxes;" that is, data is put in and answers are given with little indication ofhowthe answers were generated and what variables affected the results. Storing all the relevant information in a database and selecting only that information required for the building under consideration is one method of reducing data input. In this way one can construct a modelof the building from pre-packaged components, and calculations can then be performed using spreadsheets. This approach has the advantage ofreducing data input and being relatively low cost (Tuts 89). Althoughthere is avariety of computer software available to the industry, thetechnology with potentially the greatest benefits is still the least known and most rarely used - the ES. ESs can directly address both of the problems outlined above: by reducing t

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Full text: content.pdf (930,794 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.055604) class.social (0.033963) class.synthesis (0.021859)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Cornick T, Noble B, Hallahan C

The Limitations of current Working practices on the development of Computer Integrated Modelling in Construction

Abstract: For the Construction Industry to improve its processes through the application computer-based systems, traditional working practices must first change to support the integrated control of design and construction. Current manual methods of practice accept the limitations of man to process a wide range of building performance and production information simultaneously. However when these limitations are removed, through the applications of computer systems, the constraints of manual methods need no longer apply. The first generation of computer applications to the Construction Industry merely model ed the divided and sequential processes of manual methods i.e drafting, specification writing, engineering and quantity calculations, estimating, billing, material ordering data-bases and activity planning. Use of these systems raises expectations that connections within the computer between the processes model led can actually be made and faster and more integrated information processing be achieved. "Linking" software is then developed. The end result of this approach was that users were able to produce. information faster, present it in an impressive manner but, in reality, no perceived improvement in actual building performance, production economy or efficiency was realised. A current government sponsored Teaching Company Programme with a UK design and build company is addressing the problem of how real economic benefit can be realised through improvement in, amongst other things, their existing computer applications. This work is being carried out by both considering an academic conceptual model of how "designing for production" can be achieved in computer applications and what is immediately realisable in practice by modeling the integration of a limited number of knowledge domains to which computers are already being app1ied.i.e. billing from design, estimating and buying. This paper describes each area of work and how they are impacting on each other.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,052,816 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.051898) class.impact (0.047946) class.environment (0.045258)
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F. Peterson, M. Fischer and T. Wingate, O. Seppänen, T. Tutti & R. See

Teaching Integrated Scope-Cost Methods with Model-based Tools

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to outline teaching integrated scope-cost methods in a course on fabrication and construction planning using model-based tools. Through project-based active discovery using project documents students create an integrated takeoff, schedule and cost estimate. The goal is to illustrate the processes and interrelation between professions required to effectively obtain the scope, schedule and cost of a proposed project. Students who are provided with a scope-time-cost technology tool in an inquiry-based environment are better able to grasp the core concepts of project planning and control and are less hindered by tedious calculations or look-up tables and manual compilation of project plans and analyses. The goal of teaching integrated scope-cost methods was achieved with the model-based tools. Students performed better on qualitative network analysis, scheduling techniques and planning. It was unexpected that students would not do as well on quantitative process model interpretation and creating a process model manually. The study is limited first by the constraints of course work limitations, second by hardware resources, third by software integratability and last a steep learning curve in integrated model-based systems. The use of model-based tools to complete a scope-time-cost project plan in a project-based learning environment is recommended. The level of effort to create a takeoff, schedule and cost estimate is reduced; the final product is better documented, of higher quality and most likely contains fewer errors.

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Full text: content.pdf (634,418 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Galjaard H C, Vos C J, Kunst S

EUROCADCRETE - an improved design exercise in reinforced concrete

Abstract: "The paper will present the results of 10 years of experience with a CAD/CAL reinforced concrete design exercise at Delft University of Technology. The exercise was developed in 1988 and 1989, implemented in 1989 for a test and in 1990 for regular use. Over 1200 students have used it since then. Students were asked to size and detail components of a simple reinforced concrete building, consisting out of columns, slabs and continuous beams at a workstation of the university CAD-Training Centre. The computer checked the results, gave feedback on these results, and let the students correct them until found satisfactory. Although the exercise was quite successful in the beginning, the success decreased in time because equipment and software got out-fashioned compared to other hard- and software students could use. Another drawback of the program was the very strict checking criteria used, which often tempted the students to solve the problem by ‘trial and error’. This didactic unwanted situation was also reason to improve the program. In 1999 the workstations have been removed and the exercise could not be continued any more. From several options available for the development of a new exercise, like upgrading the program or developing a complete new program, it was decided to adapt a commercially available program. In joint venture with a Software consultant, Matrix Software bv, a complete new exercise is being developed, tested and implemented. The exercise is based on the existing commercial software from this company for the design of concrete structures. Another reason to select this program for the development of the exercise is that it is already being used for structural analysis at the university. The program has several new features compared with the first one. It tries to implement some engineering judgement, by asking the student for answers based on rules of thumb, before computer-calculations are started. Furthermore the computer will not tell whether something is right or wrong according the code but it will show the result, leaving the judgement to the student. Another improvement will be that the exercise will contain some exercise in estimating and parameter-studies, asking for the effects of increase and decrease of sizes on the costs of a structure. The student can get help from the computer on different levels. Counting the amount and level of help being required and the time consumed may be used for a judgement. The program will use Eurocode 2 and will be made available for users who are interested all through Europe. The paper will not only describe the program, but will deal with the technical and educational results of the first implementation in spring 2000."

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Full text: content.pdf (311,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.024726) class.impact (0.022326) class.software development (0.019486)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Gowri K, Chassin D P

Softdesk energy: an effective methodology for integrating CAD and energy analysis

Abstract: Integrating energy analysis within a CAD environment provides designers the opportunity to evaluate the energy impact of design decisions much earlier in the design process than previously possible with simulation tools. Softdesk Energy is a design tool that integrates building energy analysis capability (ASHRAE "SEAM") into a highly automated production drafting environment (AutoCAD and Softdesk AutoArchitect). The authors review the technical challenges of integrating analytic methods into design tools, the opportunities such integrated tools create for building designers, and the uses of such a tool from the perspective of a current user of Softdesk Energy. A comparison between the simplified calculations in Softdesk Energy and detailed simulations using DOE-2 energy analysis is made to evaluate the applicability of the simplified analysis during preliminary design stages. As a unique example of integrating design and drafting, Softdesk Energy provides an opportunity to study the strengths and weaknesses of integrated design tools and gives some insight into the future direction of the CAD software towards meeting the needs of diverse design disciplines. This paper will present the modeling extensions required to enhance CAD data for energy analysis using a geometry interpreter and user-interface features required to assist designers with appropriate default values. In addition, details of the Industry Foundation Class developed by IAI and how it can support integration of energy analysis will also be presented.

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Full text: content.pdf (54,763 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.041062) class.environment (0.038187) class.synthesis (0.037896)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Gustav Jansson, Helena Johnsson

CONCURRENT ENGINEERING IN EDUCATIONAL PROJECTS: CASE STUDY SVARTO_BERGET

Abstract: Each year, Lulea_ University of Technology teach 40 civil engineering students and 45 architectural engineering students basic knowledge in the construction process through a simulated real-life situation. In the third year, the grand total of 85 students is brought together and taught their respective professional roles through acting as experts within 6 different fields in the realization of a residential area. Research in the last decades has identified concurrent engineering as a possible method for streamlining the design phase in the construction process. The student project was therefore planned with a concurrent engineering approach, where all student groups start their work at the same time. The pedagogy was to teach students a new approach to working in large projects, with the side effect of testing if concurrent engineering is feasible also in educational projects.Information is shared between groups through live documents on a project portal. Project coordination and communication is handled by 21 project leaders who meet regularly to exchange information between groups and detect missing information needed from other groups. Project planning is made through a method adopted from lean construction; Look Ahead Planning, which is part of the Last Planner method. IT-support is used to produce data and perform calculations but also as a tool for quality assurance across groups. All data is eventually summed up and presented in a virtual reality model of the new residential area. The VR model is gradually refined and the structure for delivering information into the model is drawn up by 6 appointed IT coordinators.

Keywords: concurrent engineering, construction process, under-graduate education, last planner method

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Full text: content.pdf (558,359 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Haksever A M

A model to predict the occurrence of information overload of project managers

Abstract: "This paper investigates information overload of construction project managers. The aim is to identify its occurrence pattern and predict the occurrence probabilities in a given circumstance, as a project manager’s information load is inconstant in nature, fluctuating over time, changing character and source. First, a conceptual definition of information overload is developed, using time as the criterion to describe information load. Information overload for a project manager is taken as occurring when the demands on information processing time exceed the supply of time. Second, the variation of information load throughout the project is structured using the interaction of a project manager with project members through the stages of a project. These two elements are combined in a matrix format where values for information overload are ascribed to cells representing the interaction with each member during each stage of the project. Six key project members, and four project stages are defined. To allow the subjective quantification of information overload, five practical situations of real life information overload are described, of which one must be chosen for each of the twenty four stage-member cells. To test the model and calculate the probabilities of information overload, data were collected using a questionnaire survey of 140 project managers in the UK. Respondents were asked to select the relevant situation for each cell in the matrix. The resulting matrices had a weighting system applied and a mean calculated for each circumstance to create an Information Load Point (ILP), presented in an Information Load Matrix (ILM). The application of ‘Ordinal Logistic Regression’ into the ILP scores provides a predictive outcome, which gives the probabilities of a project manager being in any of the predetermined five information overload situations at any stage with any member. The detailed account of the calculations and the outcome of the analysis are presented. The results revealed that the extent and sources of information overload of construction project managers vary throughout the stages of a project. The construction stage has the highest probability of information overload, followed by the design stage. The main sources of information overload are the project participants contributing the key expertise in each stage. In the design stage, the key contributors are architects and consultants, and in the construction stage, contractors and sub-contractors. Architects’ and consultants’ contributions to information overload show a similar pattern through the project duration, as do those of contractors and sub-contractors. This is the first of its kind in construction project management and provides an invaluable source of reference and guidance on the probabilities of the occurrence of information overload in a construction project. The model predicts the situations where information overload is high, moderate, low or non-existent. It is then possible to concentrate on those overloaded areas by using the appropriate means or strategies."

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Full text: content.pdf (393,534 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.016354) class.man-software (0.013484) class.impact (0.012353)
Similar papers:
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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