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Al-Jibouri S H, Mawdesley M J

A knowledge based system for linking information to support decision making in construction

Abstract: This work describes the development of a project model centred on the information and knowledge generated and used by managers. It describes a knowledge-based system designed for this purpose. A knowledge acquisition exercise was undertaken to determine the tasks of project managers and the information necessary for and used by these tasks. This information was organised into a knowledge base for use by an expert system. The form of the knowledge lent itself to organisation into a link network. The structure of the knowledge-based system, which was developed, is outlined and its use described. Conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the model and the final system. The work undertaken shows that it is feasible to benefit from the field of artificial intelligence to develop a project manager assistant computer program that utilises the benefit of information and its links

Keywords: Knowledge acquisition, Knowledge structuring, Information link, Project Control, Knowledge-Based System, Project Managers, Decision Support Systems

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/6 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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Bingunath Ingirige, Ghassan Aouad

Awareness and usage of information standards in the uk construction industry: a survey by the SIENE network

Abstract: Developments in information standards and interoperability in the construction industry are becoming increasingly popular. Much of this development is centred on the Internet for sharing of information and generic data exchange. However many industry participants are unaware of the benefits of information standards and reluctant to make long-term investment on them unless there is clear evidence of business benefits. The Network on Information Standardisation, Exchanges and Management in Construction (SIENE) was launched in March 2000 to streamline information standardisation and interoperability in the construction industry. It is an international network consisting of academics and industry practitioners in the UK and elsewhere whose work on the subject is of international reputation. The project is funded by The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under The Innovative manufacturing Initiative (IMI). The main source of knowledge gathering is through workshops conducted in the UK. The website of SIENE also provides opportunity for the members and other participants to enhance the knowledge base of the network. SIENE’s main objective is to explore current research being undertaken in the area of information standardisation and to benchmark UK performance with the rest of the world. It has also conducted workshops to investigate sources and types of barriers that prevent the adoption of information standards and to identify business benefits for construction firms. The findings of the project will be disseminated amongst industry and academia. The paper deals with the results of a questionnaire survey conducted by SIENE in the UK on awareness and usage of information standards among contractors, consultants, suppliers and clients in the construction industry. Forty members of the Construct IT, Centre of excellence in UK were selected as the initial target audience for the questionnaire survey. It is expected to broaden the scope of the survey to a wider audience in its second stage. The paper will discuss the information standards, which are widely being used in the UK construction industry and will highlight any organisational problems, which hinder the adoption of standards. It will also propose areas, which need to be improved for the firms in the industry to gain business benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (385,336 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.031105) class.roadmaps (0.019768) class.commerce (0.017889)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Boughton G S, Futcher K G, Lloyd R H, McMahon M A

Management of dynamic projects within a virtual (paper-less) office

Abstract: This paper presents fresh directions currently being developed and implemented for project management of major works for the Highways Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (S.A.R). Techniques based on a new approach to computer-aided office practices and procedures, for office-based and on-site professionals and technicians. The intention is a replacement for previous technologies which are seen to be encumbered by outmoded traditional project information management processes. The Government of Hong Kong SAR gained considerable experience and immeasurable benefit from the use of IT, on what has been the world’ s largest infrastructure programme of the 1990’s, namely the new Chek Lap Kok international airport with accompanying arterial express routes. Through economic necessity, the Government plans to promote significantly more construction within the territory in the next two decades, with projects of comparable magnitude, commencing as the airport-core-programme reaches completion in 1998. What has emerged in the course of construction works since 1993, is a striking departure from traditional administration-centred-office-operations. It has become evident that project management processes must avoid being swamped by large volumes of project information and its dissemination. Disparate manual record keeping and paper document processing are a limitation and hindrance to collaborative tasking essential to any project. Computerised record keeping, status tracking and on-line project cost reporting are demanded as an essential panacea to these ailments. It is anticipated that full relief must be gained by implementing professional-centred-office, operations which provide full office automation: the creation of the ‘virtual’ project management organisation. The paper describes the practical research commissioned by the Highways Department to enable implementation of technologies for a practical information system to serve pragmatic people in the manner of a virtual project management organisation.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,899 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.021601) class.economic (0.014870) class.synthesis (0.009177)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Ekaterina Petrova, Mai Brink Rasmussen, Rasmus Lund Jensen and Kjeld Svidt

Integrating Virtual Reality and BIM for End-User Involvement in Design: A Case Study

Abstract: The outcome of projects within Architecture, Engineering, and Construction is highly dependent on the quality of the collaboration between the involved actors. The end-users occupy the buildings on a daily basis, and therefore their involvement in the design process is essential to the output. However, traditional practices place the responsibility of decision-making mostly in the architectsÕ hands. Virtual Reality technologies coupled with Building Information Modelling have the potential to improve the collaboration and data visualization in the building design.This paper presents the findings from a case study on the integration of Building Information Modelling and Virtual Reality for user-centred participatory interior furnishing of a new university building. Besides a significant reduction in the time for generation of alternative proposals, the end results show an increased attachment of the employees to their future workplace and a high level of acceptance towards the technology. Finally, the authors present suggestions for further work, which could improve future design processes utilizing the Virtual Reality technology.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Building Information Modelling, End-User Involvement, Interior Design, Participatory Design

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0266

Full text: content.pdf (1,308,997 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Ellis R C T, Thorpe A

An illuminative evaluation of distributed interactive multimedia project management resources

Abstract: There is considerable interest in the use of novel computer-based training (CBT) techniques in higher education institutions. Partly this is an acknowledgement of the exciting pedagogic opportunities such resources offer, but the imperative of providing high quality education in the most efficient manner possible is undoubtedly a key institutional driver. Flexibility therefore is an essential pre-requisite of educational multimedia development. This paper reflects on the findings of an illuminative evaluation of a bespoke project management hybrid CD-ROM (DIMEPM) which sought to identify "facilitators" and "barriers" to learning arising from the use of CBT in an industry setting. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the evaluation suggests that more accessible learning materials combined with flexible delivery does not necessarily promote study. Rather it allows practitioners to prioritise work related tasks and demands greater discipline from the learner. A mixed diet of face-to-face and student-centred activities is advocated that maximise the advantages of each delivery mode.

Keywords: CBT, training, education, qualitative evaluation, multimedia

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Full text: content.pdf (618,457 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Gehre A, Katranuschkov P

Human-centred knowledge-based model access service for engineers

Abstract: This paper presents the Model Access Service (MAS) developed in the EU ISTforCE project (IST-1999-11508). It uses the capabilities of product data technology to provide value added services in a human-centred, web-based collaboration environment. Along with standard services for product model access on model and object level, it encompasses also two advanced knowledge-based features: a Reasoning Agent and an Explanation Component. MAS is developed as a self-contained system that can be used in a variety of ways. In the ISTforCE framework, it is integrated with an external Product Data Server (PDS) and a Core Information Server (CIS) which provide the necessary infrastructure enabling the full functionality of MAS. Standard functionality for model level access is provided by using MAS as a central tool that enables generalised data exchange capabilities to all relevant product models in one or more construction projects, even if they are stored on different product data servers. This is done on the basis of user and account information retrieved from the CIS. To enable the use of the product models directly, MAS provides an API for generalised RPC-based model access on object level. One of the two advanced features of MAS is the integrated Reasoning Agent which is responsible for replying to sophisticated queries concerning a specific structural design model, extending the IFC2x core model. It allows clients to use AI planning methods remotely, to generate solution sequences that combine the computed single Solver items. The second advanced feature incorporated in the MAS is the Engineering Ontology layer. It enables the translation of IFC data to the vocabulary and semantics familiar to end users. This unique feature of the MAS, distinguishing it from most proposed product data services to date, is augmented by an Explanation Component which opens many of its functions to standard Web Browsers.

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Full text: content.pdf (518,767 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.045124) class.retrieve (0.038403) class.communication (0.021612)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Martin J W, Haque M E

Distance learning in engineering and construction education: pros and cons

Abstract: Distance education has rapidly emerged as a new avenue for teaching and learning in the engineering and construction disciplines. Much has been written about the benefit and the downside of distance education. Many stakeholders in the construction and engineering fields remain sceptical about the validity of distance education. In spite of this scepticism the American Council of Education estimated that 85 percent of traditional colleges and universities offered, or soon would offer distance accessible classes. China alone produces more than 100,000 graduates, with more than half of China’s 92,000 engineering and technology graduates having attained their degrees through distance education. A universal model for distance education in engineering and construction would include answers to questions about the reliability and validity of the distance curriculum. The virtual engineering and construction classroom will become much more student centred. The traditional classroom will likely be replaced with a more intimate virtual environment. The student centred distance learning archetype will include dynamic demonstrations of theoretical engineering and construction models allowing students to manipulate, experiment, and translate theories into real-world applications. The distance education curriculum in engineering and construction will likely include the creative use of virtual technologies, theoretical adaptation, and the incorporation of comprehensive evaluation of student performance. Distance education in engineering and construction in the future must provide an element of comprehensive student evaluation to be universally valued and accepted.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,089,664 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.108034) class.deployment (0.038926) class.software development (0.006953)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Raphael B, Smith I

A probabilistic search algorithm for finding optimally directed solutions

Abstract: "Evolutionary search techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA) have recently gained considerable attention. They have been used for solving a wide range of problems including function optimisation and learning. In this paper, a new global search technique, called Probabilistic Global Search (PGS), is presented. Results of benchmark tests indicate that this technique performs better than genetic algorithms on a wide range of problems. PGS is a stochastic search technique. It works by generating points in the search space according to a probability distribution function (PDF) defined over the search space. Each axis is divided into a fixed number of intervals with equal probability density. The probability densities of intervals are modified dynamically so that points are generated with higher probability in regions containing good solutions. The algorithm includes four nested cycles: 1. Sampling 2. Probability updating 3. Focusing 4. Subdomain cycle In the sampling cycle (innermost cycle) a certain number of points are generated randomly according to the current PDF. Each point is evaluated by the user defined objective function and the best point is selected. In the next cycle, probabilities of regions containing good solutions are increased and probabilities decreased in regions containing less attractive solutions. In the third cycle, search is focused on the interval containing the best solution after a number of probability updating cycles, by further subdivision of the interval. In the subdomain cycle, the search space is progressively narrowed by selecting a subdomain of smaller size centred on the best point after each focusing cycle. Each cycle serves a different purpose in the search for a global optimum. The sampling cycle permits a more uniform and exhaustive search over the entire search space than other cycles. Probability updating and focusing cycles refine search in the neighbourhood of good solutions. Convergence is achieved by means of the subdomain cycle. The algorithm was tested on highly non-linear, non-separable functions in ten to hundred variables. Results are compared with those from three versions of GAs. In most cases PGS gives better results in terms of the number of times global optima were found and the number of evaluations required to find them. The application of the technique to non-parametric optimisation problems is further illustrated using an example from conceptual structural design."

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Full text: content.pdf (373,661 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.019177) class.impact (0.015651) class.deployment (0.013039)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Sutrisna M, Proverbs D, Potts K, Buckley K

A Knowledge Based System for Valuing Variations in Civil Engineering Works: a User Centred Approach

Abstract: There has been much evidence that valuing variations in construction projects can lead to conflicts and disputes leading to loss of time, efficiency, and productivity. One of the reasons for these conflicts and disputes concerns the subjectivity of the project stakeholders involved in the process. One way to minimise this is to capture and collate the knowledge and perceptions of the different parties involved in order to develop a robust mechanism for valuing variations. Focusing on the development of such a mechanism, the development of a Knowledge Based System (KBS) for valuing variations in civil engineering work is described. Evaluation of the KBS involved demonstration to practitioners in the construction industry to support the contents of the knowledge base and perceived usability and acceptance of the system. Results support the novelty, contents, usability, and acceptance of the system, and also identify further potential developments of the KBS.

Keywords: civil engineering, knowledge based system, user interface, valuation of variations

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Full text: content.pdf (455,261 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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T Cerovšek

IMREC: A long-term reference collection for the advancement of ‘Information Management and Retrieval in Engineering’ (IMRE)

Abstract: An open-access edited repository providing a long-term scientific reference collection for research and development (R&D) in Information Management and Retrieval in Engineering (IMRE) is presented. IMRE goes beyond textual information retrieval (IR), as it addresses vast volumes of project-specific, task-centred, non-/semi-/well-structured engineering alphanumeric, graphical, 3D geometry and model data (e.g., analytical models, time-history series, analysis results and BIM). To facilitate the R&D in IMRE and to avoid redundant preparation of test data for large-scale test-beds IMRE Reference Collection (IMREC) is proposed. IMREC will provide a set of relevant queries, reference collections and procedures that will make IR benchmarks repeatable, comparable and interoperable. The purpose of this paper is to present the approach and to invite peers to make use of and to contribute to IMREC. IMREC uses an R3-M6 approach, where R3 stands for Relevant, Reachable and Representative and M6 stands for Measurable, Multi-standpoint, Multi-application, Multi-phase, Multi-level-of-detail and Multi-lingual. Initially, we reviewed more than 70 existing test collections, developed a Dublin-Core repository and primed sample data. IMREC will serve for the R&D in IMRE to better address engineering information needs, improve communication in R&D and allow for technology transfer.

Keywords: information management, information retrieval, reference collections, aec workflows, bim

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Full text: content.pdf (230,460 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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