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A Akcamete

An Approach to Capture Facility Maintenance and Repair Information to Store Change History

Abstract: During operations, changes happen to facilities frequently due to maintenance and repair (M&R)work, upgrades and renovations. Consequently, corresponding facility information needs to be updatedso as to provide reliable information to facility operators and managers. Moreover, the record offacility changes is necessary to understand the patterns of failures and to support proactivemaintenance decisions. Therefore, there is a need to enable storing of the information about suchchanges at the time that they occur. In current practice, facility documents are not frequently updatedand a complete history of changes is not available for supporting facility management decisions. Theauthors_ objective is to streamline the capturing of M&R information when these activities areperformed, so as to have a history of facility changes that can be used to understand how a building isdeteriorating and to support facility information updates. By observing M&R work records, weidentified the need for capturing different types of facility and change information for different typesof M&R work. Moreover, we observed the need for a spatial database to support pattern analysis byidentifying clusters that may not be found by using traditional databases. We developed a taxonomy ofM&R work that classifies various types of work on different types of facility components and listsassociated information modules that represent data required to be collected in the field. This approachenables a formal approach for capturing change information as a result of M&R work by providingcustomized templates for each type of work. The focus of this paper is to present the need forcustomization of information capture templates. The paper also gives a description of the approach offormally generating customized templates based on a taxonomy of M&R work and linking thecaptured history information with a facility information model. Enabling such a linkage will be thefirst step towards reasoning about the M&R history in order to analyze how a building deteriorates,identify problems in the building, and inform the users of facility information update needs.

Keywords: Facility maintenance, maintenance changes, change history, maintenance planning

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Hore, F Cullen, R Montague, K Thomas

ADVANCING THE USE OF BIM THROUGH A GOVERNMENT FUNDED CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY COMPETENCY CENTRE IN IRELAND

Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to develop the early case for a new Competence Centre dedicated to industry led research in the Irish construction industry. It incorporates the results of a survey carried out by the Construction IT Aliance (CITA) and also identifies similiar centres carrying out industry led research around the world. Results from the survey show a clear support for the establishment of such a centre in Ireland and, in particular, a strong interest in Building Information Modelling (BIM) as a immediate priority research area. BIM is having a profound effect worldwide on the construction industry. The development and adoption of BIM technologies is in parallel with other major changes relating to project procurement approaches, such as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), and the general sustainability agenda. Although slow to take off in Ireland to-date, BIM is becoming extremely relevant in other countries, with over 50% adoption in the United States and an average of 36% in Europe. The authors argue that a government funded Competence Centre will facilitate the Irish construction industry in re-establishing itself, domestically and internationally as a competitive entity.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Industry, Competence Centre, Collaboration, Integrated Project Delivery, Sustainable Construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A Löfgren

Socio-technical management of collaborative mobile computing in construction

Abstract: The constant changes of plan and unanticipated events in the production process at construction sites result in communication patterns that are dynamic, spontaneous and informal. Most of the existing ICT tools do not sufficiently support informal communication for powerful collaborative problem-solving, management of site resources, handling of parallel process activities and do not correspond to the basic needs and work patterns at the construction sites. Mobile computing technologies have the potential to provide an inclusive wireless mobile ICT platform (voice and data) that can enable improved support for informal communication and on-demand data at construction sites, which can result in improved project collaboration leading to increased efficiency and productivity in the construction process. Still, an implementation strategy for collaborative mobile computing at construction sites is complex and must consider numerous issues regarding system capabilities, mobility, applications, services, integration of existing ICT systems, user interface and user devices to meet the requirements and behaviors of site workers in the mobile distributed heterogeneous construction environment. A mobile computing platform needs to be designed, implemented and managed with a socio-technical bottom-up approach realizing end user and group needs, understanding the separate issues of adoption on different organizational levels, and recognizing mobile computing as a process integrated enabling technology for improving collaboration and project communication throughout the whole construction process.

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Full text: content.pdf (328,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


A Vasenev, F Bijleveld, T Hartmann, A Dorée

Visualization of asphalt paving process during operations on site

Abstract: Presently important changes are occurring in the road construction industry, resulting in changing roles of road agencies and contractors. Additionally, a lot of new asphalt mixes with new properties are introduced, such as warm or even cold asphalt mixes, thin surfaces, etc. Despite these changes, the current asphalt paving process still heavily relies on the skills and experiences craftsmanship. Instruments to monitor key process parameters are seldom applicable. To overcome these limitations, real-time visualizations of key indicators such as asphalt temperature could provide decisive information to working teams oriented to adjust their operations on site. To move towards real-time decision making support, this paper introduces a workflow to deliver information in meaningful way by providing close to real-time and easily understandable visualizations of asphalt temperatures to roller operators. Using modern technologies like DGPS, temperature linescanner, and wireless connection on site it is possible to deliver visual information about asphalt temperature to support roller operators’ decision making regarding working paths. To implement user-oriented visualization we outlined an overall workflow including equipment selection, infrastructure organization, data processing and visualization phases. We validated the feasibility of workflow implementation through visualization of asphalt temperature on a real-world asphalt paving project.

Keywords: Asphalt paving, construction, infrared thermography, visualization

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Mahdavi, A. Mohammadi, E. Kabir, L. Lambeva

An empirically-based approach toward user control action models in buildings

Abstract: In most buildings, occupants operate control devices such as windows, shades, luminaries, radiators, and fans to bring about desirable indoor environmental conditions. Knowledge of such user actions is crucial toward accu-rate prediction of building performance (energy use, indoor climate) and effective operation of building service sys-tems. This paper describes an effort to observe control-oriented occupant behavior in three office buildings in Austria. Thereby, user control actions as related to one or more of the building systems for ambient lighting, shading, window ventilation, and heating were monitored together with indoor and outdoor environmental parameters. The collected data is being analyzed to explore relationships between the kinds and frequency of the control actions and the magni-tude and dynamism of indoor and outdoor environmental changes. Moreover, implications of user actions for building performance (e.g. energy consumption) are studied.

Keywords: Building performance, facility management, action models, occupant behavior

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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A. Z. Sampaio, P. G. Henriques

Virtual reality technology applied in engineering education

Abstract: The three-dimensional geometric models used to present architectural and engineering work, show only the final form, which does not allow progress in constructions to be observed. But, the visual simulation of the construc-tion process of a building need mod-els which are able to produce dynamic changes to their geometry. This paper re-ports how techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality were used to obtain models that could show their physical evolution over time and which would be able to simulate construction processes visually. Two types of work, concerning the construction of a cavity wall and a bridge, were developed as virtual models for educational purposes. These models make it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence, to visualize details of the form of every component of each work and to support the study of the type and method of op-eration of the equip-ment necessary in the construction process. These models have been used to distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. The use of virtual reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of construction.

Keywords: education, engineering, simulation, 4d models, virtual reality

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A.K. Jallow, P. Demian, A.N. Baldwin & C.J. Anumba

BPM-driven Construction Client Requirements Change Management

Abstract: Changing client requirements is one of the principal factors that contribute to delays and budget overruns of construction projects which as a result causes claims, disputes and client dissatisfaction. Change management ensures that such changes are handled through a properly coordinated and controlled process and retained throughout the project life cycle. This paper presents an empirical study that investigated the potential for an automated process of managing changes to clients’ requirements in construction projects. An initial focus group meeting was set up as a preliminary study which was followed by two case studies. Participant observation was used to conduct the case studies during which technical documents were also reviewed. The results show that current requirements change management process lacks efficiency. The paper concludes that business process management (BPM) approach could be a solution to better manage the requirements change process

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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AD Dawson & N Pham

Process Complexity and Cultural Baggage - Barriers to Change

Abstract: Recent research at Deakin University in Australia has focused on developing a highly detailed understanding of current organisational interactions and information flows in the construction industry. This is leading to the development of a detailed process model which is being tested against a field study construction project. The field study reveals highly complex information flows and interdependencies between stakeholders such as designers, project managers, clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers. This, combined with the results from a recent project identifying inhibitors to the take up of IT in the construction industry undertaken by the IAI-Australasian Chapter allow conclusions to be drawn as to whether the current construction industry structure lends itself to increased levels of ICT or whether fundamental cultural changes are required before further beneficial ICT implementation is able to be achieved.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,382,166 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Addison A,O’Hare W-T,Kassem M,Dawood N

The importance of engaging engineering and construction learners in virtual worlds and serious games

Abstract: The engineering and construction industries require their workforce to undertake complex learning and training activities. Exposing new employees, graduates, or apprentices to these environments could endanger their safety and the safety of those working with them. On site education and training also requires an investment of time from skilled individuals and companies. Problems accessing environments, such as construction sites, heavy plants or chemical manufacturers, are substantially heightened by the need to risk assess and comply with Health and Safety legislation making the traditional “hands on” and “shadowing” approaches to training and education more complicated than in the past. These difficulties are also compounded by changes to the geographical locations (e.g. distance learning, on site) of those studying to join these career paths or progress within them. Therefore, educational institutions and trainers must consider how to deliver this skill based learning for both those with access to academic premises and those learning at a distance. New technologies such as serious games are one of the solutions being explored. This paper undertakes an analysis of safety issues and safety training and learning methods relating to the construction industry. The paper takes its start point from a Health and Safety Executive commissioned report in 2003 (Hide et al, 2003) and questions if sufficient improvements in safety have been achieved within the construction industry since its publication. Then, the paper investigates the development of education and training that meets the necessary reality and complexity of engineering and construction sectors and the ability of serious games to provide timely and accessible training to achieve competency within these sectors.

Keywords: Competency,learning,safety,serious games,training,virtual worlds

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Aish R

Extensible enterprise computing for construction as a necessary pre-cursor for collaborative engineering

Abstract: "Our focus is to consider the construction industry as essentially an information processing system. In its ideal form, practitioners (each with an individual internal representation of design intent) interact with other practitioners by first interacting with an information processing system that manages various shared external representation of design intent. The underlying assumption (from an information technologist's perspective) is that design data is held in a sufficiently complete representation, and that changes to this representation are transactions that move the representation from one consistent state to another. We might call this 'enterprise computing' for construction. This ideal of 'enterprise computing' for construction can be compared to the realities of current practice. - Due to its fragmentation, the construction industry generally perceives its use of information technology in terms of multiple discrete 'individual' systems (with the resulting proliferation of discrete documents) rather than as an enterprise systems. - The drawing tradition, which represents building in 2D, with different representations of the same design split across multiple independently editable documents inhibits consistent management of design and the use of analytical tools. While these may be familiar arguments, there are new object oriented and data management tools emerging from key software developer, such as Bentley Systems, that are designed to address the specific needs of a 'construction enterprise', namely geometric generality, multiple application semantics, multi-user access, and transaction management. These systems also address the scalability and reliability issues required for deployment in practice. Again, arguments for (and advantages of) systems of this type have been discussed in the research literature for more than two decades. The difference is that these systems are ready for deployment. But with this prospect for a broader application of 'Enterprise Computing' for Construction, there are associated other significant issues which may concern both the 'strategic' and the 'creative' practitioners, namely: - Semantic completeness: building a sufficiently complete multi-disciplinary representation of design intent - Data integrity: where any intelligent components are used, these should not become 'orphaned', for example, by object ""instance"" data being detached from the definitions of the corresponding class - Data longevity: the integrity of design and other data should be maintained for the life-time of the building, across new hardware platforms and operating systems. Upgrades to the application and any intelligent components should not disrupt or invalidate existing data - Parallelisation of design: individual designers or engineers should be able to work in parallel, and then be able to synchronize their changes to design data with co-workers - Expressibility: architectural design and construction engineering are open-ended domains. Additional intelligent components should be capable of being added on a ""per project"" basis. Within this context, this paper will explore the essential 'tension' that exists within the Architecture and Construction sectors. On the one hand, there is a perceived need by construction managers for computing tools based on clearly defined and agreed schema to control the construction process (thereby giving economic advantage, comparability, etc.). On the other hand, creative designers who are under other competitive pressures, are expecting a different set of computing tools to allow the exploration of new building configurations and construction geometry. While in the former case a standardisation of schema (as the foundation of a traditional ""Enterprise Computing"" system) would appear to be in order, in the later case the essential 'open-ended-ness' of the creative process demands ""extensibility"" as a pre-requisite of any computing system. These differing requirements (and indeed, attitudes) within the user community, presents software developers with interesting challenges. What technologies (for example, object and/or relational) and what 'domain abstractions' are appropriate foundations for solutions for these differing requirements. Or indeed, what technologies and 'domain abstractions' can be used as the basis for broader set of applications whose design is intended to unify across this apparent ""management-creative"" divide…hence the theme of this paper: ""'Extensible Enterprise Computing' for Construction"". Fundamentally, this is not exclusively an issue of technology. We need to address both the technical and cultural issues if we are to realise our collective ambition of providing effective tools with which to support collaboration between the diverse range of interests that occur within the Architecture and Construction sectors."

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Full text: content.pdf (827,728 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
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Class: class.communication (0.034023) class.software development (0.019513) class.represent (0.017320)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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