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Akbas R, Fischer M, Kunz J, Schwegler B

Use of domain knowledge, product models and geometric algorithms for generation of construction zones

Abstract: We present a layered approach for automated generation of construction zones from 3D CAD models for construction planning and scheduling. The existence of 3D models and product models provides an opportunity for planners and schedulers to consider zoning alternatives and represent and visualize production information in detail. Construction zones are spaces, or groups of spaces, which serve as units of work in the construction planning process. Failure to define construction zones properly may increase overall project duration and impact workflow adversely. Today, zone definitions are generally ad-hoc. Formal definitions and mechanisms to generate construction zone information are not available in commercially available software.We have defined a three-layer computational framework in a prototype construction management software tool to generate detailed information about construction zones. The framework separates the construction-based information from the product model representation and geometric information. Each layer is extensible and testable without the other layers. The highest layer (Layer3) contains domain knowledge about zones, i.e., types of zones and factors or constraints affecting construction zone definition. For example, a shape factor takes into account the changes in production rates due to local variations of geometry. The shape factor also allows the representation of an idle crew because of a nearby activity, missing support or unavailability of materials. Layer 2 manages the changes in the product and process models that are necessary to generate zones. Additionally, it uses zoning knowledge to maintain consistent schedules at multiple levels of detail. Layer 1 is the geometric level that contains the geometric algorithms to create the subdivisions and aggregations using the geometric shape representation of the building components. Instead of considering a fixed geometric representation for a component, we provide a flexible triangular mesh shape representation, breaking-up or aggregating component geometry as necessary. With the results of this research, professionals will be able to simulate and visualize construction processes more accurately and link design and construction data more tightly to explore design-build scenarios rapidly and communicate them effectively.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,076,021 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.028985) class.environment (0.026386) class.represent (0.022098)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Alvise Simondetti

Designer’s toolkit 2020: a vision for the practice

Abstract: Designer’s toolkit is rapidly changing and design practices need a shared vision of what the short, me-dium and long term might be. With this in mind we interviewed twenty-four thought leaders in the design community worldwide. Four big ideas emerged from the interviews: transferring technologies from other industries has provided great bene-fits, but it has also generated the need to transfer processes; changes in the way we build drives changes in the de-signer’s desktop, including the representations that designers use to communicate; greater gains are achieved by focus-sing on the interplay of specialised algorithms; “just on time” design data improves design. Four possible contexts for the designer’s toolkit are described: the proprietor aimed at increasing productivity, the open-source aimed at increasing IT driven creativity, either more or less engaged with fabrication. Finally, the paper concludes by proposing what designers ought to be doing today. Actions include educating specialist toolmakers, custodian and math modellers; integrating computer controlled machine workshops into designers’ project spaces; the automation of repetitive design tasks; supporting communities around software tools and store project data according to geospatial co-ordinates.

Keywords: Design community, technology transfer, process transfer, designer's desktop, representation, communication

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Amit Dayan and Rafael Sacks

Cognition Enhancement Using Virtual Reality in Apartment Customization

Abstract: The design and construction of customer configured apartments is challenging when customers are unable to interpret construction drawings or lack the knowledge or competence to deliver the decisions and information that is required from them. Builders dedicate significant managerial and technological effort to manage the customization process with their customers, and this process is commonly recognized to be inefficient. Studies suggest that one root cause is the fact that most customers are not construction professionals, hence decision making is often a challenging and sometimes unpleasant task for them due to insufficient product cognition. In this study we developed a virtual reality tool for the facilitation of an immersive presentation of yet to be built apartments to customers, speculating that cognition may be enhanced and facilitate the customization decisions. An experiment was conducted to identify and measure cognition differences. Some areas of measured cognition shown noticeable improvement which imply for significant cognition enhancement. Exploitation of the findings by future adoption of the examined method is discussed and suggested to construction companies.

Keywords: Product Customization, Apartment Design Changes, Virtual Reality, Residential Construction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0184

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Anadol Z, Akin O

Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery process

Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.

Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope changes

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Full text: content.pdf (480,311 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Andreas Kunz, Stefan Dehlin, Tommaso Piazza, Morten Fjeld, and Thomas Olofsson

Collaborative Whiteboard: Towards Remote Collaboration and Interaction in Construction Design

Abstract: The need for improved interaction and sharing of information in construction projects has grown significantly in recent years, especially as projects have become ever more complex.The early design stage is of particular importance for the final results as most of the building lifecycle characteristics are committed at this stage and the opportunity to influence them decreases rapidly as the cost of making changes, or correcting design errors, increases dramatically. Recent advances in information technology offer methods and tools to meet this need. In view of this, CollaBoard – an interactive whiteboard for remote collaboration – was developed to support mixed, geographically distributed teams. Interconnected via a network, two or more system setups allow users to interact and share information over a common interactive vertical whiteboard. Superimposing the live video of the remote partner – “people on content” – also allows the transfer of Meta information such as gestures, et cetera; resulting in a more intuitively distributed collaborative teamwork. Based on technology such as CollaBoard, the envisioned outcome of our research is a system allowing experts from different disciplines to integrate and optimize lifecycle-related parameters into a new product. The resulting system will allow each expert to adjust his/her own set of parameters, giving access to a large database through intuitive interfaces. This article also discusses possible areas of application with focus on early design, recommends future development needs and provides a brief comparison to existing and state-of the-art systems. The development work includes interdisciplinary research and development and interdisciplinary collaboration between academia and industry.

Keywords: design process, lifecycle, remote collaboration, visualization technology, whiteboard

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Atkin B L

Refocusing project delivery systems on adding value

Abstract: The ability to manage a lean supply chain that contains no non-value adding elements is the ultimate challenge. The research behind the paper's findings is based on the production of functional process models adopting IDEFŘ methodology to portray information flows, participants, organisations and IT use. Key participants in 11 projects contributed to the research and subsequently verified the models. Analysis was then performed on the models, including checks for consistency and process integrity. A generic model was developed from the best practice elements of all 11 projects, alongside changes in construction procurement and out of sector best practice industrial design and production. The result is a new project generic process model that could form a blueprint for subsequent construction projects. The research continues through modelling and costing different project scenarios so that non-value adding activities can be isolated and eliminated from the supply chain.

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Full text: content.pdf (530,599 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.029860) class.impact (0.014831) class.analysis (0.014508)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Bandic M, Izetbegovic J

A framework for research of IT application in Croatian construction companies

Abstract: Croatian construction companies are passing dramatically changes by privatisation and restructuring according to the market needs of today and especially during future huge reconstruction and development of Croatian (as well Bosnia and Herzegovina) economy. The market conditions in these Republics are for now: scarcity of financial means, scarcity of personal educated and trained in modern management methods, scarcity of some profiles of skilled people in construction, very strong competition of foreign companies, since Croatian (and B and H) market is now open for foreign companies. The specific after war conditions include also new legal and business structure (completely new legislative based on the practice of developed western democratic states) new financial structure and institutions (also based on the financial structure of the developed countries). In the chaining of the subsystems: [ ownership - undertaking - management - transformed ownership] , information technology is fundamental but not sufficient enabler for quality decision making and efficiently management of the construction processes. Based on the IT application, there are necessary educated and trained management people, adequate decisions, and realisation. By adequate IT application design and construction processes are probably rationalised and accelerated, by satisfaction of the high quality standards, so that construction companies could easier adapt to market needs. What are necessary prerequisites (organization, IT, personnel, other) for making and carrying out of the quality decisions? In which degree IT application (modern information technologies, expert systems, CAD/CAM, GIS, CASE) influence on decision quality? What are other factors are influencing (knowledge degree, psychological state, environment, market)? On such question have been proposed and accepted research program under the name "Development of IT application in Croatian construction companies" by Croatian Ministry for science and technology. The goals: * Continually research of development of IT application in companies that are active in design, construction and maintenance of construction objects. * Comparative overview of IT application state to different criteria * Proposition of strategy development of IT application in construction * Creation of IT data base for information and experience exchange between the foreign and domestic construction companies * Proposition of education programme of IT application in construction * The questionnaire is now in distribution, and research will be carried out in the next three years. * The paper will explain the research approach, and eventually the first results.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,526 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.024035) class.legal (0.021667) class.education (0.019299)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Benton, L.

Changes in the Pattern of Negotiations for Housing Production - Explanations Based on the Theory of Transaction Costs

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Series: w78:1986 (browse)
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Bharat D

Building industry and the agents of change

Abstract: The infornmtion technology and the changes it brings about are recent and evolving phenomena. In the absence of established historical perspectives, many previous studies have focused on the information technology issues that are of only immediate concern to the building industry and thus provide only limited perspectives. In this paper, we suggest that it is an appropriate time to look beyond the technological bottlenecks such as incompatibility of software or hardware, prohibitive resource investments, and others that are often cited as the reasons impeding applications of the information technology in the building industry. With the new developments taking place in the information technology, the gradual and paced changes in the building industry organizations will be rephced by changes with a bigger scope and a higher momentum. These changes will not result in simply a new breed of professionals who become another discrete part of the web comprising the building industry; they will affect the very web defining the building industry. Additionally, the technological developments that will bring about such changes are presently being carried out by forces external to the building irtdustty thus further obscuring their potential impacts. Five key information technology advances are submitted here as the agents of significant change in future: networks, groupware, robotics, flexible manufacturing, and microprocessor embedded building components. It is argued that the building industry needs to expand the debate about the role of the information technology by taking account of developments which presently lie outside its immediate and traditional concern. The paper initiates this discussion and describes a number of likely impacts of the new technology on the educational, professional and organizational spheres in the building industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,994,845 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.impact (0.050231) class.environment (0.047416) class.man-man (0.024687)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Bindslev B

Facing a new reality in the computerazationN of the industry

Abstract: The introduction of computers in the management of building projects has gone on since the early sixties. In recent years the use of personal computers has increased and will soon become widespread within the organizations of the industry. This development has followed the mechanization of manual work on building sites and in component factories in the fifties. The mechanization of information processing is a logical consequence of the ongoing industrialization of the society, because mechanized production requires adequate and efficient management of activities, In this situation organizations will undergo changes and will collaborate according to new patterns in order to profit by the new technology [ref 11. In Europe the introduction of the Inner Market will have effects which will require measures to ease communication between the parties of the industry. Therefore, the idea of a common artificial language has gained increasing interest. It has become necessary for technical reasons but also in order to facilitate communication among nations that use different natural languages. This paper outlines some of the problems related to formalization of co-ordinated communication in an industry facing a new reality [ref 21. Keywords Classification; Communication; Computer-aided Design; Databases; Neuro-linguistics; Project Management; Symbolic Logic.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,016,066 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.053222) class.social (0.037187) class.synthesis (0.026611)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


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