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Dennis Peeten, Herm Hofmeyer

Visualisation and Research Strategy for Computational Spatial and Structural Design Interaction

Abstract: At the department of Architecture, Building and Planning of the Eindhoven University of Technology, a new research project has recently been initiated with the goal to develop a research engine for studying the interaction of spatial and structural design processes. Each design process will be implemented as two separate configurable transformation steps; a conversion step and an optimisation step. The idea is to start with an initial spatial design and measure how the design changes after subsequent iterations through the conversion and optimisation processes. A significant part of the spatial-to-structural conversion step together with a first version of a visualisation tool have been implemented and both perform as expected. During the course of the research project, a first version of the complete research engine will be developed. The performance of this first version will be compared to case studies. Based on these results, adjustments and/or additions to the research engineā€™s transformations will be made. The final version of the research engine will also be used to experiment on academic designs in order to develop insights in the fundamental relation between space and structure.

Keywords: spatial design, structural design, computational design, visualisation

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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E Petrinja, V Stankovski & ˇ Turk

Provenance Metadata for Shared Product Model Databases

Abstract: The process of saving metadata committed to track all changes to some data, is known as ""provenance"". In the AEC/FM sector provenance data can be exploited for tracking all interactions of different users between each other and with parts of data. For a particular application, we need to consider which metadata are essential for future queries and who is going to use these. The IFC standard already contains some provenance concepts in its entity structure. We have considered these provenance concepts to build a provenance tracking software. The provenance ontology server was developed by using the OWL ontology language, already available IFC concepts and some complementary concepts that we had to include for the sake of generality of our implementation. The developed prototype allows us to upload an IFC file to a web enabled service that parses it and saves instances of retrieved concepts for later queries, according to the ontology we have defined.""

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Full text: content.pdf (297,509 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Eastman C M, Assal H, Jeng T

Structure of a product database supporting model evolution

Abstract: One of the primary capabilities for integrated data models and databases for design is support for dynamic evolution. The need is to support design changes that affect the schema, and often existing objects already loaded with data. We present scenarios using EDM-2, a database providing these capabilities.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,263,046 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.068152) class.store (0.017249) class.retrieve (0.001897)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Eastman C, Augenbroe F

Product modeling strategies for today and the future

Abstract: Today, there is a growing set of technologies being developed for information exchange in the construction industry. These range from Aspect Models in specific product areas to large scale integrated product models, to new languages such as EXPRESS-X and EXPRESS-2. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and review these various efforts, from several different perspectives: * in terms of what can be used now or in the near future in a production form; * in terms of the significant technical issues and limitations that may require generation changes in exchange technologies; * in terms of external business practices (reflecting case studies), practical benchmarks and adoption criteria, political and other externalities that are affecting these efforts. The survey will review the following issues: * current capabilities of ISO-STEP Part definitions to support information exchange in the building industry; * current efforts by IAI, BCCM in STEP, and other parallel activities and their potential contribution and pitfalls (problems to be overcome); * different current research efforts and the problems and solutions they identify, including COMBINE, EDM-2, VEGA, work at CIFE at Stanford University. Hitherto underdeveloped model aspects, such as capturing the semantics of the client's brief, or capturing design evolution (program, decisions and rationale), modeling performance assessments, and others such as relevant standards, construction site handling, etceteras will be reviewed and priorities assessed. Over the last ten years, the set of requirements that a building product model must meet in order to be accepted in practice as a significant 'productivity enhancement has incrementally expanded. That is, as various research goals have been set, then met, the true extent of the challenge for realizing production-based building product modeling has grown. We will review this expanding set of requirements and attempt to scope their final range. These requirements include, among other aspects: * 'semantic coverage', * level of interoperability across applications, * level of embedded project management control, and * maintained linkages to parallel 'unstructured' information flows, e.g. managed by Engineering Data Management and Document Management software. It will be argued that a viable growth scenario regarding the semantic coverage of building models is likely to be a determining factor in the way that CAD vendors will embrace these as the basis for developing the next generation of architectural CAD software. Priorities of development will be identified and compared with perceived market pulls. The perspective taken will emphasize the US point of view. However, we will endeavor to also weight significantly the European situation and efforts. The result of these perspectives will be to identify 2-3 scenarios of future evolution in the area of building product modeling, with an assessment of their likelihood of coming to be, and the critical issues needed to accomplish them.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,802 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031024) class.roadmaps (0.018975) class.strategies (0.018828)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Engdahl S

Product identification systems for construction and facility management

Abstract: This paper presents a study of the concept of a common construction product identification system with a focus on the establishment of principles for its use within computer integrated construction and facility management processes. An analysis of current systems for product identification utilized within the Swedish sector of construction and facility management is presented in an addition with a discussion of the concept of object and class identification in information systems development. The study is a part of the industry doctorate research project ‘Product information in computer-integrated construction and facility management processes’, which aims at studying methods for handling product information and contribute to the development of computer based systems for product information management. A main hypothesis within this project is that an information platform enabling efficient integration of IT in handling construction product information is composed of an identification-, classification-, and an attribute system. These components should be mutually independent and implemented as sector wide standards. This study specifically deals with the first component, a common system for identification of construction products. During recent years an increasing amount of research has been dedicated to define methods to integrate and utilize information technology in handling the vast amount of information used, created and transferred within construction and facility management processes. In Sweden, the focus has been on classification systems and product models as central means for establishing a framework for information handling. A common system for product identification would in general facilitate handling of product information in computer integrated construction and facility management processes. Specific advantages would be to enable; - Dynamic invocation of distributed components (e.g. CORBA) representing the product via a link relation residing in a database connected to the Internet. - Direct product information retrieval in case of a present identifier on a product, catalogue page or advertisement. - Exactness in production follow-up, i.e. when consumed production resources are registered. A common system for product identification is considered to be relatively easy to define and implement in comparison with common standards for product classification, attributes and product models, since the latter ones are aspect dependent and involve numerous actors and divergent interests. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze current systems for product identification used within the Swedish sector of construction and to demonstrate the role of such systems in IT based environments for handling construction product information. The study shows that separate actors within the building process so far have developed systems for product identification without support for the process as a whole. Among the systems analyzed is EAN-13 regarded as most suitable since it is international, non-sector specific, in correspondence with a barcode standard for automatic data capture and has the widest propagation. However, the EAN-13 system, like the other systems, lacks explicit norms that guarantee valid identification in a historical perspective especially required for product information management within facility management processes. EAN-13’s main disadvantage in the construction context is its total focus on trade items, thus its deficient handling of standard product units, which is the common view for actors outside the sector of trading. The conclusion implies that a common system for product identification with characteristics of being international, non-sector specific, without property or class referencing attributes and with explicit criteria regarding changes of identifiers as a result of property alteration would be most advantageous and that such system is a central component in an information platform with means for achieving efficient utilization of IT. None of the systems in current use is featured with all these characteristics.

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Full text: content.pdf (527,797 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.retrieve (0.020441) class.software-software (0.015031) class.bestPractise (0.012129)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Faisal Manzoor Arain

IT-based approach for effective management of project changes: a change management system (CMS)

Abstract: In a perfect world, changes will be confined to the planning stages. However, late changes often occur during construction, and frequently cause serious disruption to the project. The need to make changes in a construction project is a matter of practical reality. Even the most thoughtfully planned project may necessitate changes due to vari-ous factors. The fundamental idea of any variation management system in a building project is to anticipate, recognize, evaluate, resolve, control, document, and learn from past variations in ways that support the overall viability of the project. Learning from past variations is imperative because the professionals can then improve and apply their experi-ence in the future. Primarily, the study proposes six principles of change management. Based on these principles, a theoretical model for change management system (CMS) is developed. The theoretical model consists of six fundamen-tal stages linked to two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for making more in-formed decisions for effective management of variations. This paper argues that the information technology can be ef-fectively used for providing an excellent opportunity for the professionals to learn from similar past projects and to better control project variations. Finally, the study briefly presents a knowledge-based decision support system (KBDSS) for the management of variations in educational building projects in Singapore. The KBDSS consists of two main components, i.e., a knowledge-base and a controls selection shell for selecting appropriate controls. The KBDSS is able to assist project managers by providing accurate and timely information for decision making, and a user-friendly system for analyzing and selecting the controls for variation orders for educational buildings. The CMS will enable the project team to take advantage of beneficial variations when the opportunity arises without an inordinate fear of the negative impacts. By having a systematic way to manage variations, the efficiency of project work and the likelihood of project success should increase. The study would assist building professionals in developing an effective variation management system. The system would be helpful for them to take proactive measures for reducing variation orders. Furthermore, with further generic enhancement and modification, the KBDSS will also be useful for the man-agement of variations in other types of building projects, thus helping to raise the overall level of productivity in the construction industry. Hence, the system developed and the findings from this study would also be valuable for all building professionals in general.

Keywords: CMS, information technology, KBDSS, changes, management

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Franklyn Chukwunonso

THE CHALLENGES OF SCHOOL EDUCATION IN AN INFORMATION SOCIETY

Abstract: The difficulty in understanding the future implications of new technologies in society is seen in the growth of the internet throughout the world, and in particular, in schools. As factors such as convergence, increased bandwidth, "edutainment", multitasking and changes to traditional socialization modify everyday life. There is a corresponding need to consider the ways in which emerging practises and beliefs challenge traditional assumptions about the nature of school education. Although schools are by nature conservative and can be resistant to reform, the collective influence of an increase in the number of networked computers, improved teacher training, and the impetus of a transformed culture in a wide society are likely to lead to a reconsideration of the nature of schooling

Keywords: Challenges, school, school education, university education, information, society, information technology, technology, information society

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Series: other (browse)
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Georgios Hadjidemetriou and Symeon E. Christodoulou

Pavement Anomalies Detection and Classification Using Entropic Texture Segmentation and Support Vector Machines

Abstract: Presented herein is a vision-based method for the detection of anomalies on roadway pavements, utilizing low-cost video acquisition and image processing of road surface frames collected by a smartphone (or camera) located on a vehicle moving in a real-life urban network, along with entropy-based texture segmentation filters, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. The proposed system, which has been developed in MATLAB, pre-processes video streams for the identification of video frames of changes in image-entropy values, isolates these frames and performs texture segmentation to identify pixel areas of significant changes in entropy values, and then classifies and quantifies these areas using SVMs. The developed SVM is trained and tested by feature vectors generated from the histogram and two texture descriptors of non-overlapped square blocks, which constitute images that includes ŌŌpatchÕÕ and ŌŌno-patchÕÕ areas. The outcome is composed of block-based and image-based classification, as well as measurement of the patch area.

Keywords: Pavement Condition Evaluation, Road Anomaly Detection, Vision-Based, Entropy, Texture Segmentation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0191

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Gokce Ozcelik, Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Ali Ghahramani and Yuchao Wang

Can Immersive Virtual Environments Be Used for Understanding Occupant-System Interactions Under Thermal Stimuli?

Abstract: OccupantsÕ interactions with building systems, as well as occupant-related factors considerably influence a buildingÕs energy consumption. However, understanding occupant-system interactions related to thermal changes in built environments could be cumbersome due to the resources needed to create these environments or the resources needed for conducting controlled experiments in existing Physical Environments (PEs). One avenue is to use Immersive Virtual Environments (IVEs) where occupantsÕ interactions with the built environment are measured in the context of thermal stimuli. However, for validating the adequacy of using IVEs for understanding occupant interactions with building systems and/or elements, it is imperative to first investigate if IVEs are proper representations of PEs. In this study, we benchmark IVEs to the PEs with regards to user perceptions relating to thermal stimuli. In a human subject experiment, we use surveys and subjective thermal votes both in the IVE and PE, where participants experience both hot and cold indoor thermal conditions. Perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction votes are analysed by using paired t-tests and ANOVA. The change parameters are defined for identifying the direction of perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction. Statistical inferences show that change in occupantsÕ perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction in IVE and PE are not significantly different, and direction of the change is positive in majority of the cases (i.e., 100% of the participants were comfortable in PE, almost 95% of the participants were comfortable in IVE, 79 % were satisfied in PE, 74% were satisfied in IVE at the end of the experiment).

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment; Virtual Reality; Physical Environment; Thermal Perception; Building Systems; Occupant-Building Systems Interactions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0022

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Haque M E

3-D visualization and animation techniques in structural design education

Abstract: As technology rapidly changes, the importance of educating and training diverse populations of civil/construction engineering/science students becomes more critical. With the advances in information technology over the last decade, the traditional teaching format of having an individual lecture to an audience has been supplemented, and in some cases, replaced by the rapid development and implementation of new distance learning methods. Traditional lecture format teaching methods sometimes fall short of conveying the complex analysis and design principles that need to be mastered in structural design. However when the theories are exemplified in a virtual environment with multimedia, animation, interaction, and manipulated image visualization techniques, students' conceptual understanding are enhanced. The important advantages of the virtual reality environment over other computer-based design tools, are that it enables the user to interact with the simulation to conceptualize relations that are not apparent from a less dynamic representation, and to visualize models that are difficult to understand in other ways. The interactive nature of virtual environments made it a natural extension to the 3-D graphics that enable students to visualize real life structures before actually building them. The main objective of this research was to create an innovative structural design concept visualization methodology on a web-based interactive virtual environment. The approach adopted in this research was to create the interactive learning environment using Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Languages (VRML). VRML was the primary language used to create a virtual environment and 3-D simulation, and Java applets were created for interactive analysis, design and structural behavior animation over the World Wide Web (WWW). The presented paper illustrates the design concept visualization techniques for reinforced concrete structure analysis and design.

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Full text: content.pdf (446,018 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.062502) class.education (0.055487) class.man-software (0.034286)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


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