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Eastman C, Augenbroe F

Product modeling strategies for today and the future

Abstract: Today, there is a growing set of technologies being developed for information exchange in the construction industry. These range from Aspect Models in specific product areas to large scale integrated product models, to new languages such as EXPRESS-X and EXPRESS-2. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and review these various efforts, from several different perspectives: * in terms of what can be used now or in the near future in a production form; * in terms of the significant technical issues and limitations that may require generation changes in exchange technologies; * in terms of external business practices (reflecting case studies), practical benchmarks and adoption criteria, political and other externalities that are affecting these efforts. The survey will review the following issues: * current capabilities of ISO-STEP Part definitions to support information exchange in the building industry; * current efforts by IAI, BCCM in STEP, and other parallel activities and their potential contribution and pitfalls (problems to be overcome); * different current research efforts and the problems and solutions they identify, including COMBINE, EDM-2, VEGA, work at CIFE at Stanford University. Hitherto underdeveloped model aspects, such as capturing the semantics of the client's brief, or capturing design evolution (program, decisions and rationale), modeling performance assessments, and others such as relevant standards, construction site handling, etceteras will be reviewed and priorities assessed. Over the last ten years, the set of requirements that a building product model must meet in order to be accepted in practice as a significant 'productivity enhancement has incrementally expanded. That is, as various research goals have been set, then met, the true extent of the challenge for realizing production-based building product modeling has grown. We will review this expanding set of requirements and attempt to scope their final range. These requirements include, among other aspects: * 'semantic coverage', * level of interoperability across applications, * level of embedded project management control, and * maintained linkages to parallel 'unstructured' information flows, e.g. managed by Engineering Data Management and Document Management software. It will be argued that a viable growth scenario regarding the semantic coverage of building models is likely to be a determining factor in the way that CAD vendors will embrace these as the basis for developing the next generation of architectural CAD software. Priorities of development will be identified and compared with perceived market pulls. The perspective taken will emphasize the US point of view. However, we will endeavor to also weight significantly the European situation and efforts. The result of these perspectives will be to identify 2-3 scenarios of future evolution in the area of building product modeling, with an assessment of their likelihood of coming to be, and the critical issues needed to accomplish them.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,802 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031024) class.roadmaps (0.018975) class.strategies (0.018828)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Fischer M, Aalami F

Model-B ased constructibility analysis: the moca system

Abstract: The recent years have seen the development of several knowledge-based scheduling systems that facilitate the integration of design information with the generation of construction schedules. They have demonstrated a remarkable progress over manual planning systems. For example, these systems are able to generate a set of activities from a project description and to reason about support and enclosure information to determine the sequencing of activities. In a research project sponsored by the Center of Integrated Facility Engineering (CIFE) at Stanford University, we extended the idea behind these planning and scheduling systems by adding detailed models of construction methods. Such knowledge is needed in model-based form to enhance the practicality of the schedules that are generated, and to overcome some of the limitations of heuristic systems. While the use of product models to represent design information has been well documented over the last few years, the formalization and implementation of detailed models of construction methods still represents a major challenge and opportunity. When interacting with a product model, such construction method models are able to generate construction schedules and cost estimates almost instantaneously. This will enable project participants to explore more alternatives to a greater level of detail in less time. This will lead to projects that are more constructible than some of today's projects. This in turn will lead to a reduced total delivery time and cost for constructed facilities. This paper describes the current status of the MOCA (Model-based Constructibility Analysis) system which uses formalized construction method models to automate the generation of schedules based on product models.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,222,940 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.012332) class.economic (0.009112) class.analysis (0.007609)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


Fischer M, Stone M, Liston K, Kunz1 J, Singhal1 V

Multi-stakeholder collaboration: The CIFE iRoom

Abstract: The CIFE iRoom is a collection of linked software and hardware that allows users to readily structure, display and manipulate the various information used to design and implement a large construction project. The objectives of this research are to define and evaluate new ways for project teams to interact with and visualize project information to facilitate fast and effective decision-making. This paper summarizes the CIFE iRoom infrastructure and gives examples of its use. It shows the importance of separating a model from its view and from its control and of visualizing relationships across different views to conveniently view and compare alternative states of a project model simultaneously.

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Full text: content.pdf (966,473 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.036680) class.man-software (0.023192) class.man-man (0.009241)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Froese T, Q YU K, Liston K, Fischer M

System architectures for AEC interoperability

Abstract: "This paper discusses several issues relating to computational system architectures to support interoperability among distributed, model-based AEC/FM applications. The approach is based on tiered layers where applications interact with local “Building Objects” software components that, in turn, interact with a variety of distributed data repository alternatives in a data layer. International Foundation Classes (IFCs) models are used as the primary data model in each of the layers and communication between layers uses several XML standards. One issue is an approach to multiple meta-models within the many components of a distributed system. IFCs focus on strongly-typed models that describe AEC concepts and objects in an explicit manner. One of the requirements for applications that implement IFCs is that they must understand the semantics of the IFCs and map the IFC models to the application internal application models. However, software applications used in AEC processes are not always based on an internal model that can be explicitly mapped to a strongly-typed model such as the IFCs at development stage. Instead, it is common that some of the applications are either purely generic without an explicitly defined domain schema, or generic enough so as they must deal with run-time databases whose schemas cannot be pre-defined during the development of the applications. In order to allow this type of software to share and exchange data with other applications through the models such as the IFCs, data schemas must be mapped at a higher and abstract level that allows for run-time model schema configurations and mappings. The Interactive Workspace for Project Management (IWPM) is a CIFE (Center for Facilities Engineering) project that integrates several research decision support systems, commercial project management systems, and advanced collaborative human-computer interaction approaches using emerging industry data standards and internet technologies. To illustrate an example of using the meta-model approach, the paper applies the use cases in IWPM to demonstrate how meta-models can be used to implement IFC project management related models in such an integrated software environment."

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Full text: content.pdf (595,267 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.049095) class.standards (0.036666) class.communication (0.035658)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


J Haymaker, C Kam & M Fischer

A methodology to plan, communicate and control multidisciplinary design processes

Abstract: Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) projects require multidisciplinary solutions. To develop these solutions, AEC professionals need to construct their discipline specific information, but they also need to interrelate and make trade-offs with the information of other disciplines. Today AEC professionals have formal methods to construct much of their single discipline information: however, they lack formal methodologies to plan, communicate and control their multidisciplinary processes. As a result, AEC professionals struggle to design and execute good multidisciplinary solutions. By leveraging existing industry and our own methods and technology, we are designing and implementing such a formal methodology. Using this methodology, AEC professionals will collaboratively and iteratively define their objectives using our POP (Product, Organization, Process) method. They will develop options and analyze them using our Narrative method. They will decide upon options using our Decision Dashboard method. To develop this methodology, we are gathering test cases from ongoing AEC projects, implementing our methodology in the CIFE iRoom, re-enacting these test cases and conducting live charettes with our implemented methodology, and validating the extent to which this methodology enables AEC professionals to better communicate and control their multidisciplinary design processes. The scientific purpose of this research is to better formalize and manage design processes among many AEC professionals and their information. The practical purpose of this methodology is to enable AEC professionals to improve their multidisciplinary designs.

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Full text: content.pdf (844,923 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Koivu T J

Future of Product Modeling and Knowledge sharing in the FM/AEC industry

Abstract: This paper describes a technology foresight study performed in co-operation with Stanford University (CIFE) and VTT Building and Transport. The main aim of the project is to provide information for decision-makers about the future of interoperability and product modeling. Information was collected about technologies and their use, conditions affecting the use of the technologies and development trends. The project had two main phases: state-of-the-art and scenario building. Different methods were used for collecting data for the state-of-the-art phase. A two-round Delphi survey complemented interviews and literary study. Scenario planning and technology roadmapping were used to formulate alternative pictures of how product modeling and use of interoperable software might affect the industry. The scenarios are based on two main forces seen as the ones most likely to shape the business environment: the adoption non-proprietary approach in developing software and the adoption of value-adding approach in providing services during the life cycle of facilities. Based on the survey and data, the most wanted scenario is identified as well as different roadmaps toward most wanted scenario.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/9 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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