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, ,

A decision support system for building refurbishment design

Abstract: "Refurbishment work in the EC currently accounts for more than one-third of the total construction output. This market is expected to grow stronger with the progressive ageing of buildings and the environment impetus to retain buildings. A further dimension is the need to adapt buildings for a greying population. There are important differences between refurbishment and new construction works. The existing building constraints the design solutions, construction technologies and work methods. Mechanisation, planning, and efficient organisation of refurbishment work is difficult, due to the small, labour intensive, and ad hoc, dynamic nature of the work. Also due to the relatively small scale of refurbishment projects, there have been no opportunities for standardisation and the applications of prefabrication and industrialisation are limited. Today, larger sized contractors are rapidly moving into the refurbishment market, in response to the shrinking new-build market and the higher technological demands of large scale refurbishment projects. The EC funded Brite Euram project 4670 is titled ‘Decision Support Systems for Building Refurbishment.’ This project has started in August 1998 and will finish in July 2001. Its objective is to develop a socio-technological-commercial framework and corresponding Decision Support Systems (DSSs) for housing refurbishment, to achieve: ? refurbishments which are more focused on user requirements; ? refurbishment designs which take into account the constraints of the existing building structure; ? increased incorporation of industrialised systems and components; ? organisational procedures and production technologies that recognise the unique nature of refurbishment work. The project is divided into three tasks. Task one aims at developing a DSS for the determination of the refurbishment demand and ballpark costs. Task two involves the development of a DSS for refurbishment design. Task three will result in a DSS for refurbishment process planning and control. This paper describes the approach followed for the ongoing development in task two, the DSS for refurbishment design. The main objectives of this task are to provide decision support at the project level. It will develop a database of layouts of representative existing housing estates and a database of preferred refurbishment layouts for these representative existing housing estates. Another database will be developed containing information on building systems and components that are relevant for the refurbishment process. Task two will establish a protocol for refurbishment design support. This protocol, which is implemented in a decision support information system, involves a number of steps that aid the user in selecting an appropriate housing layout and building systems and components that meet the user’s requirements. These steps involve the evaluation of a the user’s refurbishment demands and selection of a matching representative existing housing layout. Based on further dialog with the system, a preferred refurbishment layout is selected, which in turn is used as the basis for the selection of building systems and components that meet the performance requirements as stated by the user. The paper describes the methodology that is implemented in the system for retrieving performance requirements from the user, and the approaches for matching these to the stock of existing and preferred housing layouts available in the system’s database. The system is characterised by a flexible architecture of both the databases and the user interface, which results in a scalable system that allows the expansion of the databases with new graphical layouts and building systems and components, as well as the addition of new kinds of performance requirements. The system is implemented as an Internet application, which allows the database to be maintained centrally and facilitates world wide access to the system. The system’s implementation involves the combination of graphical and non-graphical data that can be queried and matched with only typical Internet browsing software installed at the client-side."

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Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029035) class.environment (0.012122) class.impact (0.010657)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


, Jagbeck A, Karstila K

Concurrent engineering in the tendering process of building and construction

Abstract: CONCUR (Concurrent Design and Engineering in Building and Civil Engineering) is a four year initiative in the European Union Brite-EuRam workprogramme involving industry partners Skanska (Se), IVO Power Engineering (Fi) and Taylor Woodrow (UK), the specification body STABU (Nl), R and D institutions VTT (Fi) and TNO (Nl), and universities DUT (Nl) and KTH (Se). The project will develop, implement and industrially deploy an integrated CAx environment for concurrent construction tendering. CONCUR is addressing the integration of information in the stages which lead to submission of tenders. The goal is to reduce tendering cost by 30 - 50% using integrated information systems and applications. The tendering process is a complex process involving many disciplines each of which uses different types of information. . In essence it is an information refinement process, in each refinement cycle addressing the high risk aspects of the moment. In CONCUR we are addressing the integrated use of information and applications, using Project (Product and Process) Data Technology Using the major informational items the refinement process will come to information specifications. The specifications being derived are not re-invented but use is made of existing and emerging standards such as STEP and IAI. Results of the CONCUR efforts can be fed back to STEP and IAI.

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Full text: content.pdf (84,538 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.023671) class.environment (0.015688) class.impact (0.011018)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Computer aided conformance checking

Abstract: In the building process a number of problems exist with regardtobuilding regulations, causing the conformance checking process to be an island in the building process. This paper discusses an approach that enables us to perform computer aided conformance checking and to integrate the conformance checking process in the building process. The approach is based on the use of product models. This paper discusses theoretical as well as implementationaspects. The paper is an extended abstract of the Ph.D. thesis written by the author (De Waard 92).

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Full text: content.pdf (1,550,159 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.035798) class.synthesis (0.030841) class.communication (0.017275)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Message development in the building process

Abstract: New communication media offer new opportunities to exchange information between participants in a building project. A case study was done of a specific building project from the viewpoint of a company that produces concrete floors. An executable simulation model was used to create a formal description of the information exchange process. The output of the simulation is an activity schema, a message exchange diagram and a list of messages. The schemata give insight about the information flow and are a resource for developing a strategy for the introduction of electronic communication. The messages serve as a starting point for selecting a standardized electronic message or developing a special one.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,214,000 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.communication (0.022605) class.synthesis (0.022488) class.collaboration (0.015924)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


A Ekholm, L Häggström

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION FOR BIM – RECONSIDERING THE FRAMEWORK

Abstract: The purpose of building classification systems is to provide the sector with agreed and standardised ter¬minology and semantics, e.g. in systems for technical specification, cost calculation, and exchange of information. There is a growing need to use classification systems in a BIM context. In inter¬¬national construction projects and international construction product trade there is a need both to translate between national classification systems and to develop common systems. The idea behind the inter¬¬national framework standard for building classification ISO 12006-2 is that national systems would be easier to compare if they adhere to the class definitions suggested in the standard. A study of two classification systems, the BSAB system in Sweden and the DBK system in Denmark, both within the framework and yet not compatible, has risen the idea of a deeper analysis of the theoretical basis for the ISO 12006-2 classification system to find a solution to this problem. The project has developed such a theoretical framework in order to clarify the relationship between classes representing parts of buildings in the ISO 12006-2 standard, specifically the Construction entity part, Element and Work result classes. This is specifically needed when the standard is used in the context of BIM, since building models include both specialization and compositional relations among information objects representing parts of buildings. The proposed theoretical framework is based on a systems view on the built environment that distinguishes constructions in four main compositional levels: construction entities, technical systems, building elements and components. Based on the theoretical framework developed in this project, possible new interpretations of the classification standard ISO 12006-2 are discussed.

Keywords: building classification, ISO 12006-2, BSAB, DBK

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Full text: content.pdf (215,256 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Aalami F, Fischer M

Joint product and process model elaboration based on construction method models

Abstract: In practice, construction planners need to plan and replan projects at several levels of detail and would like create 4D visualizations to communicate construction schedules. The current construction planning and scheduling process is , however, still largely manual and time-consuming, making it difficult to maintain an appropriate and realistic set of plans, schedules, and 4D visualizations throughout design and construction. Researchers have demonstrated the usefulness of a product model with a decomposition hierarchy and supported-by relationships between project components to generate a construction process model automatically. The product model's decomposition hierarchy supports the generation of hierarchical activities, and the supported-by relationships between components enable automated reasoning. However, the resulting process model is typically not a usable or realistic construction schedule, since activities can only be sequenced if elaborated to the same level of detail, and component-based activity elaboration is limited to the original product model. This paper discusses how a customizable and general representation of construction method models supports the transformation of a design-centric product model into a production-centric view. A formalized hierarchical construction planning process forms the basis of this translation process. The planning process is broken down into method-driven elaboration and hierarchical planning and scheduling steps. User-defined and user-selected construction method models drive the elaboration process by supplying the necessary activity and component elaboration knowledge. The product model undergoes a transformation from a design-centric decomposition to a production-centric decomposition. The elaborated activities are sequenced based on constraints that are passed on to the activities from their construction methods. The output of the planning process is a 4D production model. A 4D production model is a linked representation of an elaborated product and process models. A 4D production model is a flexible representation of the construction process that can support many views for communication and evaluation, e.g., 4D visualization, CPM-network, barchart, or resource histograms.

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Full text: content.pdf (289,626 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.035804) class.processing (0.027755) class.communication (0.018300)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Abduh M, Skibniewski M J

Utility assessment of electronic networking technologies in construction

Abstract: Despite an explosive growth in virtually all areas of industry and commerce, Electronic Networking Technology (ENT) has only begun to make inroads into the construction industry practice. Although information exchange protocols in construction firms and on construction project sites make it difficult to take advantage of most ready-made solutions applicable in other industries, there is a significant potential of large benefits from the correctly developed and applied ENT solutions for construction firms and construction project site offices. This paper describes the ongoing research effort to determine variables related to the application of ENT protocols for the main types of construction project delivery systems and to measure the utility of ENT configurations in facilitating communication between parties involved in a construction project with respect to specific project delivery systems.

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Full text: content.pdf (74,489 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.commerce (0.026075) class.communication (0.012214) class.collaboration (0.009528)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Agger K

Modeling the pragmatic solution

Abstract: An architectural project, designed with a modeling system was followed closely from sketching to detailed design, a report was made. Experiences on the use of a system with an architectural voca- bularium and architectural operations will be presented. The presentation will concentrate on how building modeling is facilitated by the system's understanding of building and buil- ding parts, and the way they are built together to form rooms, and on facilities to represent details without modeling in full detail as a short cut in modeling. The pragmatic solution to the problem of CAAD-systems with archi- tectural knowledge is discussed in terms of current limitations and further extensions.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,332,591 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1988 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.024203) class.communication (0.009266) class.deployment (0.008203)
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Permission to reproduce these documents has been graciously provided by the Lund University and the Swedish Building Centre. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Per Christiansson and Prof. Henry Karlsson, is gratefully appreciated.


Agger K

Facilities management IT tools: building model, basic information and graphics

Abstract: The need for small easy to use Facilities Management IT tools for the existing building stock has led to the development of IokalEjdlnFo a windows based managementhnformation system with graphical navigation. The first version is in use in public institutions and the second version is under consideration among a broad group of FM experts in DK. IokalEjdlnFo has been implemented as a database system with graphicdCAD added on. The paper will discuss the building model used in the system, the sufficient model for FM in comparison with the necessary CAD model for building and the possibilities for extracting the FM building model from the CAD model. Basic information on the property is extracted from public databases and is used for automated generation of part of the objects in the building model. Graphic information is extracted from CAD models of the building or created from scanned drawings by the means of simple CAD tools added to the database tool as extensions. Graphics are used for graphic navigation in the model, for extracting quantities and for presentation of information. The paper discuss strategies for FM and CAD.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,174,117 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.036948) class.man-software (0.031639) class.communication (0.011701)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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