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Chao L C

Simulation of construction operation with direct inputs of physical factors

Abstract: The deterministic approach to estimating the production rate of a construction operation assumes constant midpoint physical attributes without addressing the effect of randomness of job conditions. On the other hand, most simulation models bypass physical factors and rely on secondorder inputs of probability distributions of task times, the judgements of which have been cited as difficult for users to make. This paper presents an alternative approach to production estimation, based on simulating directly the effects of changing job factors on task times, while addressing the probabilistic nature of construction. The neural network model is used as the computing mechanism for determining the cycle times of the equipment in given conditions and provides the basis for estimation. The obtained times are then fed directly into a discrete-event simulation model to simulate the process and establish the production capacity of the system as constrained by first-order factors. The approach is illustrated using a hypothetical excavating and hauling operation while the object-oriented programming technique is used to implement the computing procedure.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,259 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.027295) class.software development (0.021146) class.software-machine (0.005241)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Duhovnik J, Dolinsek B

Computer modeling of robotic assembling of reinforcement

Abstract: The paper describes the functional des@ of a robot system for the assembling of the reinforcement cages for beams and columns. The robot system was developed using a graphic simulation program. The robot cell consists of a frame structure, a supporting mechanism, two robots for moving and assembling of rebars and stirrups, a robot for bending of stirups, a robot for connecting of rebars and stirrups, and a storage table for delivery of rebars and laying down of manufactured reinforcement cages.

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Full text: content.pdf (672,492 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-machine (0.133666) class.software development (0.007740) class.software-software (0.006613)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Friedman A, Medek L

Evaluation of existing CAD programs used by clients in housing design and marketing

Abstract: There exists a knowledge gap between architects and buyers in the North American homebuilding industry. Mass produced housing is commonly conceived for a user whose needs are unknown to the designer during the design process. In a built model unit, potential home-buyers canappreciate how their future home will look prior to the purchasing decision. Changing this process, by allowing the user to participate in the design process, can only be accepted once both the builder's and the buyers' objectives are satisfied. We wanted to explore the possibility of having clients directly involved in their home design for the purpose of improving both user satisfaction as well as unit marketing potential. Given the fact that computers have become more accessible toboth designers and the public at large, we assumed that users can operate a pre-prepared program by themselves, on which they can make limited design decisions. In our preliminary research, we found several software companies that are already marketing such programs. The objectives of our research were to determine the merit of these programs and to establish their potential in order to narrow the knowledge gap between builders/ architects and clients in the marketing and the construction of housing. We found that these programs do not adequately familiarize the user with the manipulation of the software or hardware systems. Their operation is rather complex for the lay person and better documentation and instructions are needed if these programs are to be integrated in the future marketing of housing.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,038,057 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.021363) class.synthesis (0.018133) class.software-machine (0.016713)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Goncalves R, Pimentao J, Vital M, Sousa P, Silva H, Steiger-Garcao

Integrating applications for the construction industry using a STEP-based integration platform (SIP)

Abstract: International construction industry has not still achieved a high degree of integration and automation in the past years. The European ESPRIT III project number 6660, RoadRobot (Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot For Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications) intends to design and to implement an architecture to support the integration and automation tasks in that domain. To aid the implementation of the architecture, a STEP-based (ISO 10303) platform for integration of applications (SIP toolkit), was developed by UNINOVA. The general purpose of SIP is to assist the achievement of standardised Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) environments, providing a set of development system tools. Last year, during CIB W78 and TG10 held at the University of Stanford - California (USA), SIP and the aim of the RoadRobot project were presented. During the CIB‘96, the RoadRobot architecture and its achieved results will be shown, as well as the improvements of SIP made in order to meet the project requirements. Special care will be taken concerning the problems found and the solutions adopted.

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Full text: content.pdf (113,530 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-machine (0.020476) class.environment (0.018161) class.man-man (0.017124)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Howard H C

Modeling process and form for process plant pipe routing

Abstract: The Design Power Auto Router rapidly generates conceptual pipe routes using an integrated object model built from process schematics along with the geometry and layout of equipment and pipe supports. The software reasons about physical and topological relationships between the components to position nozzles on the equipment and to route pipelines between the nozzles while avoiding obstacles, minimizing unsupported pipe lengths, and placing pipeline components such as tees, reducers, flow meters, and control valves. The router reduces the time required for conceptual routing from weeks or months to a few hours to set up the routing model and a few seconds or minutes to generate a set of routes. With this kind of improvement in speed, plant designers can produce more accurate and detailed estimates, or explore many more layouts.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,205,367 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.processing (0.033662) class.synthesis (0.016560) class.software-machine (0.002612)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Jardim-Goncalves R, Sousa P, Pimentao J, Steigergarcao A, Grilo A, Tadeu L

Integration of planning and control activities for building and construction: experiencing standards

Abstract: The effective exchange of information regarding the planning and control activities (schedules, resources, materials, cost, cash flow) between the different parties involved in building and construction projects is a critical success factor to avoid projects' time and costs overrun and to insure better quality. However, current applications and research and development efforts on electronic exchange of information are usually restricted to the exchange of technical design information, particularly CAD exchange amongst designers and between these and contractors; and of business data (purchase orders, invoices, remittance advice, etc.), between contractors and builders, merchants and suppliers. This paper will review current practitioners' approach to the exchange of planning and control information, and discuss the business need to the seamless flow of scheduling, resource, materials, and cost information between firms. Different technical solutions available to address the subject will be described. Through the description of the experience in this area of two European projects, RoadRobot and SUMMIT, the paper will also describe the state-of-the-art regarding the development of international standards for the exchange of planning and control information, particularly at the EDIFACT, STEP and IAI levels. RoadRobot - Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot for Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications, was a project devoted to implement a general standard-based architecture to support the information management for road construction environments, covering from the road design to road construction, embracing the site, cell, machine and tool levels. SUMMIT - Supply Chain Management In Construction Industry, is an end-user driven project which envisages the creation, implementation, test and evaluation of an EDI, STEP and IAI/IFC based communication infrastructure on a specific project of building prefabricated houses, connecting project manager, contractor and suppliers. This paper shows that international standards for planning and control information in B and C are not yet enough developed and that further developments are required.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,394 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.016652) class.software-machine (0.015641) class.commerce (0.015140)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Masih R

Lift slab structures instability during construction

Abstract: Lift slab structures are built in a method, which makes them inherently vulnerable to static and dynamic instability during the construction stages. The columns cannot be laterally braced in the areas, where temporarily anchored slabs are to be lifted to higher levels, because the bracing will make the lifting process of the slabs to higher level impossible. Thus the columns will stay long and slender above the anchored slabs until the shear walls are built at the lower levels, This situation requires the checking of the whole structure above the shear walls for its stability against its own load. A formula was derived to help in checking the stability of such structures, based on the number of slabs, anchored temporarily at different levels, the distances between those anchored groups and the rigidity of the columns. A computer program was written to enable the construction process envision the critical situation which may cause instability.

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Full text: content.pdf (248,810 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software-machine (0.005220) class.software-software (0.005116)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Naaranoja M

The benefits and costs of information technology systems in building maintenance management based on interviews

Abstract: This is an introduction to how the benefits and costs of information technology (IT) systems of building maintenance management are evaluated in thirteen Finnish real estate companies. The focus is on maintenance systems, however the links to the other parts of real estate management are not forgotten. The benefits of the new IT-system are divided into performance, savings and bigger incomes. The evaluation of IT-systems includes assessing the usability, functions, integration to other systems, presentation quality, life cycle of software, references, ergonomy and price. The costs and benefits are forecast for several years to check the profitability of the investment.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,698 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.047558) class.processing (0.009873) class.software-machine (0.003395)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Pimentao J P, Sousa P A, Jardim-Goncalves R, Steiger-Garcao A

The road model - roadrobot’s experience in applying standards to road construction process’ models

Abstract: "This paper starts by presenting, in short, the architecture developed within European Project ESPRIT III 6660 RoadRobot (Operator Assisted Mobile Road Robot For Heavy Duty Civil Engineering Applications), that aimed towards the full automation of road construction sites. The purpose of the architecture was to lay the basis for the development of a system capable of integrating a set of applications in a common architecture based on the use of a standard (ISO 10303-STEP). The presented architecture has demonstrated the full integration of information and control, starting by loading the information from the selected CAE system (InRoads from Intergraph), down, through the intermediate steps, to the automatic control of a Road Paver from German manufacturer VÖGELE. The main focus of the paper is on the standard-based information models that have been developed to represent project information throughout the road construction cycle. The initial Road Model Kernel created by TNO has been extended to support road specifications that include an update on the specification of asphalt layers for road paving, but also the addition of geological information for the specification of excavation tasks. A set of models has been developed for the maintenance of information regarding planning and scheduling of tasks, which takes into account the project information. A model for resources is used form maintaining resource information for allocation during planning and scheduling. Finally a control model has been developed for control of execution of tasks. The RoadRobot has demonstrated the use of this architecture, and its underlying information models on a demonstration where information downloaded from the CAE system has made its way to a road paver who paved a road segment without on-site human intervention."

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Full text: content.pdf (328,074 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.standards (0.033764) class.represent (0.021030) class.software-machine (0.016240)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Rezgui Y, Cooper G, Vakola M

An innovative infrastructure for inter-working between dissimilar edm solutions

Abstract: The paper gives an overview of the European Esprit Condor project (ESPRIT 23105). The project aims at providing a large range of industrial areas, including the Construction industry, with an innovative infrastructure for distributing information and achieving co-operative work between heterogeneous Electronic Document Management (EDM) legacy systems, while ensuring document consistency throughout ongoing projects. The paper, first, presents the proposed technical solution, and gives a comprehensive description of the Application Programming Interface supporting the proposed inter-working and semantic linking services. The paper also includes a brief description of the modelling infrastructure supporting the proposed Condor system. Finally, a demonstrator involving the AutoCAD application, along with the Electronic Document Management systems used within the project, is presented. The latter demonstrates the Condor semantic-linking services. The project is ongoing and supported by a user interest group, which involves representatives from a variety of non-construction industry companies all over Europe.

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Full text: content.pdf (226,628 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.036406) class.man-software (0.018875) class.software-machine (0.005864)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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