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Nikiforos Stamatiadis, Roy Sturgill, Kiriakos Amiridis and Timothy Taylor

Estimating Constructability Review Benefits for Highway Projects

Abstract: Constructability review is a process used in the design phase of a project in order to interject construction knowledge and address potential issues prior to construction. This typically occurs with a team or panel of constructability reviewers. Current staffing and budgetary constraints have resulted in state transportation agencies being very careful about disturbing the existing project development process with practices that seemingly lie outside the main process, such as constructability review. An issue that constructability reviews face is the lack of any documented savings. Over the past decade, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has streamlined the constructability review process by relying on a smaller team or single reviewer per project and recently taken on an effort to estimate monetary benefits from such reviews. This paper discusses the evaluation of constructability reviews at the project level by comparing change order percentages on projects reviewed versus those not being reviewed. This approach showed a clear indication that there are monetary savings associated with constructability reviews resulting in a conservative savings estimate of 1.25 percent of the project cost without including the additional inherent savings in time, lessons learned or other aspects not readily quantifiable. This evidence presents that a streamlined constructability review process and team can still provide savings to a project. A regression model was also developed in this work to estimate the potential monetary gains from the constructability review comments but additional analysis is needed to improve accuracy. There is potential that this model could be used to further streamline the process by identifying and focusing on projects where constructability review savings could be maximized.

Keywords: Constructability Review, Design, Quality Assurance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0007

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Sander van Nederveen, Reza Beheshti, Edwin Dado, Hennes de Ridder

Towards a consistent role for information technology in civil engineering education

Abstract: For decades computers have influenced civil engineering education. Their role is significantly changed in due course of time in accordance with developments in both construction and information technologies. At Delft University of Technology the role of information and communication technology (ICT) has not been identified as a separate subject for many years. This has resulted in a very fragmented usage of ICT in the current curriculum. Students learn to use applications such as AutoCAD, Matlab, Maple, Powersim, etc. in all kind of engineering courses. They are also introduced in information modelling with the modelling language UML and the modelling tool Together. And they learn programming in the Java language using the JBuilder programming environment. But these ICT topics are spread over the curriculum and a comprehensive view on ICT education for Civil Engineering is missing. Recent discussions in the faculty regarding (1) laptops for all students and (2) the role of programming with Java in our study prompted a more fundamental discussion of these issues in a working group to discuss the role of ICT in civil engineering education. This paper reports the findings of this discussion. First an overview is given of the ICT methods and tools currently used in the curriculum. These methods and tools are taught in a fragmented way. In addition, clear opportunities for integration of ICT methods and tools in relevant courses are hardly considered. An important factor in this context is the curriculum structure of the faculty that gives room to different courses to be developed and offered independent of other courses. The paper also discusses the required objectives for civil engineering education. These objectives play a significant role in the formulation of proposals for improvements of the curriculum. The paper presents such a proposal devised for the improvement of ICT in the civil engineering education in Delft. Finally, findings and ideas are positioned in a broader context in an attempt to formulate some fundamental issues that are related to the education of ICT at any civil engi-neering faculty.

Keywords: ICT, education, civil engineering

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Shen Q

A knowledge-based model for coordinating design through value management

Abstract: The design and construction of building projects is an extremely complex undertaking, which involves people from many different professional backgrounds having different commeraal interests. This complexity has led to greater interdependency between specialisations, which produces a consequent. need for strong integration of the independent professions and skills. It is clear that the success of the design process, to a large extent, depends upon the way in which the architects, engineers, quantity surveyors and others work together. It depends upon them perceiving the same objectives for the project and recognising that what each of them achieves depends upon what the others do. This paper explores how design can be co-ordinated through the uses of knowledge-based systems and value management. A knowledge-based model for co-ordinating building design through value management is given to demonstrate the viability. The model enables a number of people to work together on a project, or in large chunks than is possible with the more solo methods it replaces. The limitations of the model are also discussed

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Full text: content.pdf (1,147,696 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.024131) class.communication (0.013231) class.bestPractise (0.008040)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Timo Hartmann

Detecting Design Conflicts Using Building Information Models: A Comparative Lab Experiment

Abstract: One of the applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is Clash Detection: The automated detection of clashes between different elements in a BIM. Clash detection helps design coordinators to detect inconsistencies between different sub-systems in early design stages that would, if not detected early, materialize in expensive change orders and delays during the construction stage. However, the existing automated Clash Detections technologies, even for rather simple building designs, usually provide a large amount of clashes of which only a very few are relevant. It is a time consuming and error prone process to filter out the relevant clashes that finally will cause change orders during installation.To help design coordinators to with filtering out only the relevant clashes, modelers should organize BIMs according to a system breakdown structure that allows a clear distinction between different systems. A good organized BIM then theoretically allows design coordinators to find the relevant clashes more efficient and more accurate by filtering out clashes between different systems that are known to cause expensive field change orders if they are not coordinated well. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment. We divided 44 undergraduate students in three groups that each had to conduct a Clash Detection. One group used 2D drawings, one group used a standard BIM, and one group used a with a system breakdown structure organized BIM. As expected, the results of this experiment show that students with the organized BIM detected the most relevant clashes. Interestingly, however, students who used the none organized BIM found less clashes than the students who only used the 2D drawings. Overall, these findings show that the application of automated clash detection technologies requires well organized input BIMs to provide an advantage over the traditional 2D drawing based design coordination process.

Keywords: BIM, design coordination, clash detection, system breakdown structure, lab experiment

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Tolman F P, Kuiper P

Some integration requirements for computer integrated building

Abstract: Introduction of computer technology in the Building and Construction industries follows a bottom-up approach. Bottom up approaches always lead to (1) communication problems on higher levels - in this case recognized as 'islands of automation' - subsequent followed by, more recently, (2) a plea for integration.. Although the word 'integration' quickly became in vogue, it is not clear what it really means and what it is that we are supposed to integrate. Another interesting and pressing question is: 'How to integrate the different integration efforts?' The paper discusses five hierarchical technical levels of integration. Each level will be elaborated in some detail. Also the relations between the levels will be brought into perspective. Non technical integration requirements1 (e.g. social, organisational, or legal) will not be discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,268,765 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1991 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.social (0.069892) class.legal (0.038255) class.communication (0.032495)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Eindhoven University of Technology.


Wamelink J W F, Stoffele M, P van der Aalst W M

Workflowmanagement in construction; Opportunities for the future

Abstract: Process control is an essential base for the efficient and successful execution of construction projects. At the same time, construction processes are complex and difficult to control. A lot of processes are critical and an overview of all these processes is often not clear. In other industries workflow management has shown to be a successful tool in controlling standardized processes. Workflow management systems take care of the information logistics and give a process overview that enables better management and control of the process. The research described in this paper focuses on the possibilities of workflow management in dynamic, project oriented processes. More specific, the paper makes clear whether workflow management systems are usable and profitable in construction and to what extent. After studying the properties of specific processes in different construction projects the criteria for the selection of an automated workflow management system are listed. This teaches that classical workflow management systems were not suited for the development of a prototype, mainly because of the lack of flexibility. Case handling systems, a type of workflow management system, seemed more appropriate for the dynamic processes. Within a large Dutch construction company the prototype has been tested in practice. The main conclusions of the research are that workflow management can be applicable and profitable in construction and that workflow management makes the processes more manageable and controllable. Information in the processes is gathered in one system that makes it easier to track down and information in the system is always up to date.

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Full text: content.pdf (141,971 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.053780) class.education (0.017954) class.software development (0.013032)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Weener R J

"The concept of hierarchical levels; an overall concept for a full automatic concrete design including the education of concrete. The case MatrixFrame? versus EuroCadCrete."

Abstract: "1. The exception proves the rule; Knowledge Based Automatic Concrete Design From the early 80 till the second half of 1990 the software Matrix developed for structural engineers was based on the MsDOS platform. In those years the codechecking distinguished itself by an extremely enforced integrated approach. A complete structural design including the generation of drawings could be realized at once, with one press on the button. In this concept there was no room for the intervening interaction of civil engineers. They had little or no influence on unforeseen situations or shortcomings in the automatic analysis of boundary conditions or the automatic design. The fact that we were secured of the cooperation of civil engineers (experts) concerning improvements makes it possible for us to make our knowledge based system even more complete. 2. The exception becomes the rule; Interactive Concrete Engineering A disadvantage of a full automatic structural design is the existence of exceptional cases. Every case needs to be programmed which leads to a huge programming effort. In order to complete the last 20% you need a programming effort of 80% of the total period. Another disadvantage is the different approach by the government for using software for code checking. The new Windows software is based on a structure very close related to the level of code checking. All the relevant parameters can be manipulated. The link to the code is absolutely clear by the visualization of the applied code article as well as the provided value and the required value. 3. The 80-20 rule; The concept of hierarchical levels 80% of his time a civil engineer is using only 20% of the functionality of his software for structural analysis. A program doesn’t need to be too complex for daily use. When you think in different levels you can manage the 80% for daily use, as well as the 20% for the advanced topics in 1 program. The computer, using generative processes, without intervening interactions can work out 80% of all calculations. When you think in levels it is possible to work out the other 20% by the same program. 4. Ruling by exception; Computer Aided Learning system 10 years ago the TU-Delft developed a CAD exercise. During this period more than 1500 students used these exercises for their training. This CAD exercise was developed in order to support students in dimensioning, analyzing and detailing concrete structures, after the introductory lecture in designing and constructing concrete in their third academic year. EUROCADCRETE is a continuation of the CAD exercise mentioned above and is based on the educational version of MatrixFrame 2D-Frame and on the experience of the TU-Delft during the lessons of the CAD Concrete exercise. Students at home can define the structural analysis part of the exercise. Then the prepared job can be worked out according to the EuroCode in the EUROCADCRETE environment. The last part of the exercise gives the student the opportunity to perform parametric studies. By means of exercises and by providing interactive tools students gain a clear insight in the nature of reinforced concrete, which is the aim of this job. A learning system like EUROCADCRETE is a combination of, on the one side, a Graphical User Interface based on the lowest level, and a check mechanism and parametric study on the other side, which is based on the advanced level within the concept of hierarchical levels."

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Full text: content.pdf (877,357 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.062219) class.analysis (0.050748) class.deployment (0.037199)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


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