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Alarcon L F, Bastias A

Computer aided strategic planning

Abstract: Modelling concepts developed to analyse project strategic decisions have been extended and implemented in a computer system leading to a generalised methodology that allows modelling and evaluation of strategic decisions in almost any decision area. Some recent application areas of this modelling system are: strategic planning, evaluation of environmental policy impacts and evaluation of risks in owner contractor relationships . The system uses concepts of cross-impact analysis and probabilistic inference as the core of the analysis procedure. A modular model structure and a simplified knowledge acquisition procedure has been designed to avoid the excessive cognitive demands imposed to the users by the original cross-impact methodology. A simple questioning process is used to guide the discussion and elicit information in an ordered manner. The result is a powerful but easy to use computer modelling system where managers, or other potential users, are not exposed to the complexities of the mathematical model. The computer system is implemented in a Windows 95 platform and it provides a graphical interface to help the users in building a conceptual model for the decision problem. The model is a simplified structure of the variables and interactions that influence the decisions being analysed. Influences and interactions assessed by experts or decisions makers are stored in a knowledge base. The system provides powerful analysis capabilities, such as: sensitivity analysis, to identify the most important variables in the decision problem; scenario analysis, to test decision under different environmental conditions; prediction of selected performance outcomes; risk analysis, to identify the risk involved in different alternatives; comparative analysis of the effects of alternative actions on individual or combined performance measures; explanatory capabilities through the model causal structure; etc. The computer model can translate expertise collected from multiple experts into a prediction of significant outcomes for decision-making. The model allows management to test different combinations of options and predict expected performance impacts associated with the decisions under analysis. The use of this decision-support tool can provide valuable insights on alternative options for strategic decision-making

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Full text: content.pdf (360,296 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.068425) class.impact (0.056619) class.environment (0.054697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Arthur W T Leung, C M Tam

Assessment of Impacts of Project Technical Complexity on Building Production Using Clustering and Knowledge-Based System

Abstract: Site production layout planning is highly correlated with the technical complexity of a building project. Building structures, building layouts, scales of project and external site conditions are the major components affecting allocation and positioning of site facilities and construction plant. The relationships between these attributes are well known by experienced project managers. In the planning and tendering process, project managers and planners would assess and decide the site production layout by applying their cognitive knowledge using intuitive rather than quantitative approaches. They recognize the benefit of using quantitative models in decision making, which however present much difficulty when modeling the intwined and complex relationships between large numbers of variables. This study proposes an assessment model to examine impacts of technical designs, building layout designs and site conditions on building production with respect to the site layout plan using a data-based platform, which can assist decision making in site planning.The system consists of two components, the Building Production Impact Assessment Model (BPIA) and the Building Production Impact Database (BPIDB). The BPIA adopts the natural clustering technique, the self-organizing Map (SOM), to classify building project samples in terms of technical complexity to compute the technical complexity index for the sample projects. The sample projects and their index are uploaded to the BPIDB forming the data records. In the assessment platform, planners can input the project information of a new project, and the system will return with a complexity index and three sample projects with the highest similarity. The objective of the proposed system is to generate both a quantitative complexity index derived by the clustering model and the cognitive knowledge through the selected projects to improve the quality of decisions. The conceptual framework of the system will be discussed and illustrated with examples.

Keywords: technical complexity, building production, clustering, database

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Blain M

Cognitive theory in relation to the ACTof drawing in electronically generated programs

Abstract: "Visual perception processes in sequential samples or fixated forms. Therefore, if we are to achieve unified perceptions there must be an integration of visual input over time. These sensations are not rich enough to mediate perception, we as perceivers must add to them. This elaboration of sensation involves inferential processes, semantic, semiotic and metaphorical associations, utilizing memory, habit, etc. This paper forms a basis for looking at these inputs as abstractions and how this enables a better understanding of: Cognition, visual and computational perception Computational descriptive rules Constructivist machine vision programs uses of Cognitive and visual theories within the mechanics of drawing. This examination expands towards exploring issues of presence and absence and the confusion of boundaries between inside and outside, hybridity, infiltration and dispersion, non-grounds and objects within."

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Full text: content.pdf (199,792 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.036182) class.roadmaps (0.021100) class.software development (0.012792)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


D Greenwood, S Lockley, O Jones, P Jones

THE EFFICACY OF REALISTIC VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS IN CAPTURING USER EXPERIENCE OF BUILDINGS

Abstract: Virtual models can offer early and inexpensive proxies of how the real environment will be experienced by its users. However, until relatively recently, the usefulness of virtual models has been constrained by the technological limitations of the software and hardware. Games engines now offer the industry a way to import multiple 3d formats to streamline workflow, with far greater realism and complex interactions with the created virtual environment. In order to be accepted as a reliable tool for design development and problem solving in architecture, engineering and construction, these virtual experiences must be capable of producing user-feedback that is credible. The assumption that a model of human experience from a virtual environment can be a dependable representation of how the real environment will be experienced needs to be tested. Such tests have hitherto offered inconclusive results and the paper reports on the early stages of a current project that aims to redress this. The use of equipment familiar to cognitive psychologists, such as lightweight head-mounted eye tracking systems, should enable comparisons to be made between user-experiences of real environments and their realistic virtual counterparts. Should the virtual environments be shown to communicate similar physiological responses from the participants and deliver similar experiential qualities when compared to the real environment, then it can be argued that they offer realistic visual representations and accurate representations of experience.

Keywords: Architectural design, Games, User experience, Virtual environments

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Gul, Leman; Gu, Ning; and Williams, Anthony

A New Approach to Design Education: Evaluations of 3D Virtual Worlds on Design Teaching and Learning

Abstract: With the recent developments in information and communication technologies, 3D virtual worlds have the potential to make a major contribution to design education as constructivist learning environments. Considering the changing trend in design education, we have been employing cutting-edge technologies in our design teaching, allowing students to collaborate within the 3D virtual environments such as Second Life (www.secondlife.com) and Active Worlds (www.activeworlds.com), which support synchronized design communication and real-time 3D modeling. This paper reports our teaching experience and the students’ learning experience, based on team-based design and communication skills-building in 3D virtual environments and presents the challenges faced by design education. In this paper, we will firstly provide a critical analysis of various design learning and teaching features in 3D virtual environments as constructivist learning environments, and secondly identify issues which address the core skills and cognitive processes involved when designing in 3D virtual environments.

Keywords: 3D virtual worlds, design teaching and learning, affordances and constraints

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Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Hauser M, Scherer R J

A methodology for cognitive architectures for design tools in civil engineering

Abstract: Developments of knowledge-based tools for design support in building and civil engineering still remain isolated approaches without a strong methodological basis. The impact of Artificial Intelligence technology on the engineering practice is still relatively low, because research and development efforts are often abandoned on a early prototype stage. The approach described in our paper aims at the systematic study, development and ap- plication of Al technology in building design to obtain a methodology for an enumerable set of architectures attached to specific problem categories in building design. We illustrate the methodological framework with a set of selected case examples.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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I Mutis, R R A Issa

Enhancing Spatial and Temporal Cognitive Ability in Construction Education Through Augmented Reality and Artificial Visualizations

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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Ivan Mutis, Raja R.A. Issa, Ian Flood

Missing fundamental stratum of the current forms of the representation of concepts in construction

Abstract: The generation of concepts in the construction industry involves the interpretation of syntactically defined symbolic notations, such as logic, frames, semantic networks, natural language, and of other forms such as visual rep-resentations. These notations are deliberately organized to define concepts. Models as forms of representations are based on symbols that are aimed at referring to some entities of the world with properties and relations apprehended within them. Models involve grouping a set of relations, which characterize concepts, with the purpose of sharing and understanding these concepts by members of the community. However, models suffer the limitations that logic and the symbolic notations bear, because they cannot capture the richness of the phenomena of the world in their syntactic no-tation nor other intentionality features. Other forms of representations such as visual representations suffer the same limitations. An analysis of the nature of the representations employed in the construction industry suggests the inclusion of the ac-tor’s role in a new stratum for generating representations of construction concepts. This actor, who manipulates or generates the representation for communicating concepts, is committed to the intentionality aspects of the represented concept that are not captured in current forms of the representation. The inclusion of these and other phenomenological aspects concerning the nature of the representation are intended to generate representations for accurate interpreta-tions. The modus operandi with these representations indicates a subsequent interpretation by other actors or project participants. The inclusion of this stratum promises a significant progress in creating efficiency in interoperability on construction projects. The assumption is that the representations are cognitive manifestations of common, shared con-cepts employed by the construction industry community. This analysis is supported and developed through the semiotic theory which addresses the nature of the representations through signs and the role of agents with the representations and with the external physical domain. This study attempts to approximate semiotics as an experience that illustrates the reasoning process from external rep-resentations and the role of intentionality in employing external representations. This experience inquires about the form of the correspondence of the perceived, entity, event, and relations, or, in other words, a correspondence of a phe-nomenon in the world with the concept in the construction participant’s mind. In addition, the purpose of this experi-ence is to provide direction to the method of how semantics aspects should be understood to give interpretations for concepts employed in the construction industry.

Keywords: semiotics, construction concepts, representations, interpretation

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Full text: content.pdf (1,090,655 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Koutamanis A

From design information management to virtual design prototyping

Abstract: Architectural practice is currently characterized by intensive (if not always intelligent or efficient) use of computerized tools for rather strictly defined tasks. Especially in areas like representation computerization is rapidly becoming the obvious solution, even though the efficiency and effectiveness of existing tools has yet to match the requirements of current architectural problems or the performance of related disciplines. Attempts to improve on existing representations fall under two main approaches. The first is the bottom-up development of structure and meaning in the representations used for each application area and bilateral correlation of these representations. The second is institutional classification and standardization of design information for all application areas. Both approaches aim at design information management using a central representation that integrates partial descriptions. The true potential of this representation is virtual design prototyping. The demands and possibilities of virtual design prototyping generate specific expectations for the evolution of design information management. A promising solution is the derivation of entity standardization and correlation not from conventional (apparent) domain knowledge and current computer practices but from the cognitive principles which provide a comprehensive yet compact basis for a radical re-consideration of architectural representation.

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Full text: content.pdf (347,575 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.060982) class.analysis (0.025641) class.represent (0.015089)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Milton T

Media matters

Abstract: A cognitive explanation is offered 011 why media matters In designing. The explanation provides a conceptual frarrrework for distinguishing types of design tools.

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Full text: content.pdf (551,490 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.049790) class.analysis (0.043624)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


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