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A Redmond, A Hore, R West, J Underwood, M Alshawi

Developing a Horizontal Integrated Life Cycle Costing Analysis Model through BIM

Abstract: Advancing interoperability between design team applications has been a major challenge for advocates of open standards. The buildingSmart alliance and Open Geospatial Consortium Inc in the U.S. have developed and implemented an Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner Operator, Phase 1 Testbed that streamlines communications between parties at the conceptual design phase to establish an early understanding of the tradeoffs between construction cost and energy efficiency. The results of this Testbed combined with an on-going collaborative R&D project ‘Inpro’ co-funded by the European Commission to identify business and legal issues of Building Information Modeling in construction were used as theoretical propositions underlying a 2010 Delphi survey. This paper presents the results of one questionnaire of that overall study. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to (i) identifying the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii) detecting the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii) examining the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, (iv) exploring the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information, and (v) investigating the industry’s perception on whether the development of a Cloud based BIM Life Cycle Costing would be of significant use to the Irish and UK construction industry. The rationale for this research is to refine the results of the initial questionnaire, AECOO-1, and Inpro R&D projects in order to determine if a prototype based on developing a cloud integrated LCC model through BIM could be generated in the UK and, Ireland and if so, what would be the legalities of implementing such a project.

Keywords: Cloud, BIM, Information Exchange, Interoperability, LCC

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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AD Dawson & N Pham

Process Complexity and Cultural Baggage - Barriers to Change

Abstract: Recent research at Deakin University in Australia has focused on developing a highly detailed understanding of current organisational interactions and information flows in the construction industry. This is leading to the development of a detailed process model which is being tested against a field study construction project. The field study reveals highly complex information flows and interdependencies between stakeholders such as designers, project managers, clients, contractors, subcontractors and suppliers. This, combined with the results from a recent project identifying inhibitors to the take up of IT in the construction industry undertaken by the IAI-Australasian Chapter allow conclusions to be drawn as to whether the current construction industry structure lends itself to increased levels of ICT or whether fundamental cultural changes are required before further beneficial ICT implementation is able to be achieved.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Alarcon L F, Bastias A

Computer aided strategic planning

Abstract: Modelling concepts developed to analyse project strategic decisions have been extended and implemented in a computer system leading to a generalised methodology that allows modelling and evaluation of strategic decisions in almost any decision area. Some recent application areas of this modelling system are: strategic planning, evaluation of environmental policy impacts and evaluation of risks in owner contractor relationships . The system uses concepts of cross-impact analysis and probabilistic inference as the core of the analysis procedure. A modular model structure and a simplified knowledge acquisition procedure has been designed to avoid the excessive cognitive demands imposed to the users by the original cross-impact methodology. A simple questioning process is used to guide the discussion and elicit information in an ordered manner. The result is a powerful but easy to use computer modelling system where managers, or other potential users, are not exposed to the complexities of the mathematical model. The computer system is implemented in a Windows 95 platform and it provides a graphical interface to help the users in building a conceptual model for the decision problem. The model is a simplified structure of the variables and interactions that influence the decisions being analysed. Influences and interactions assessed by experts or decisions makers are stored in a knowledge base. The system provides powerful analysis capabilities, such as: sensitivity analysis, to identify the most important variables in the decision problem; scenario analysis, to test decision under different environmental conditions; prediction of selected performance outcomes; risk analysis, to identify the risk involved in different alternatives; comparative analysis of the effects of alternative actions on individual or combined performance measures; explanatory capabilities through the model causal structure; etc. The computer model can translate expertise collected from multiple experts into a prediction of significant outcomes for decision-making. The model allows management to test different combinations of options and predict expected performance impacts associated with the decisions under analysis. The use of this decision-support tool can provide valuable insights on alternative options for strategic decision-making

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Full text: content.pdf (360,296 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.068425) class.impact (0.056619) class.environment (0.054697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Anotnio Grilo, Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves

Changing E-Procurement in the AEC Sector with BIM

Abstract: The paper will analyze how the new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are changing the processes within the AEC sector, namely the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach; Service Oriented Architecture, and the emerging of Cloud Computing. The combination of these approaches enable a full de-materialization of the whole building or life-cycle and the possibility of e-procurement become more efficient and increase market competitiveness. Cloud Computing is an evolution over the traditional hosting and application service providers, though more aligned with the service-oriented environments. The advent of Cloud computing is likely to take the burden of internal and external ICT challenges off of micro-size and small-size firms, and particularly alleviate the interoperability problem and thus sustaining the possibility of having the full transactional cycle fully integrated between the public entity issuing a tender and would-be suppliers within the AEC sector, particularly when combined with the BIM approach. This will support the possibility that electronic procurement does not become a too high burden to micro-sized and SMEs companies and thus maintaining their ability to tackle e-procurement of building and construction works public goods and services.The paper describes how BIM, SOA and Cloud Computing can change traditional e-procurement functions, namely the elaboration of tendering documents, as the technical data can be automatically coupled with transactional information, as in RFP, Order, or Invoice, and published in electronic procurement platforms. The paper will present results of current R&D of the application of this approach in the construction phase of building development projects.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling, Electronic Procurement, Service Oriented Architecture, Cloud Computing

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Ashkan M. Naraghi, Vicente A. Gonzalez, Michael O’sullivan, Cameron G. Walker, Mani Poshdar and M. Adel Abdelmegid

Implementation of Hybrid Simulation Modelling Framework in Construction

Abstract: The goal of construction system modelling is to improve construction work performance by tracking the dynamic behaviour of construction systems. Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) has been suggested as a supporting tool for management decision-making in order to capture the dynamic complexity of construction projects. However, the limitations of DES in modelling influential factors such as the individual and emergent behaviour of system entities have led to the combined use of Agent-based Simulation (ABS) and DES. This paper provides an overview of DES and ABS applications in construction, and then discusses rationale for integrating DES and ABS from the conceptual stage onwards. Furthermore, a hybrid DES-ABS conceptual framework is introduced and the challenges of this type of hybrid simulation model are explained.

Keywords: Hybrid Simulation, Construction Management, Decision Support System

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0072

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Aulis Kappi

Computer methods in concrete materials technology - an overview

Abstract: This paper describes some examples of computer methods available in concrete materials technology for the precast industry. The most simple and widely used tools are programs or more often just spreadsheet tables for calculation of combined grading curves and batch quantities of available aggregates. Packing programs are used to optimize aggregate combination. Mix simulation and mix design programs are more advanced basic tools in finding the targeted concrete mix. Presently the most helpful computer methods are definitely quality control programs. These are now also being presented in Windows versions. Next generation computer programs for precast plants would combine materials technology and process control.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Björk B-C

INFOMATE: a framework for discussing informationtechnology applications in construction

Abstract: The paper discusses the scope of research on information technology applications inconstruction (ITC). A model of information and material activities is presented, using theSADT activity modelling methodology. This rather abstract model is used as a basis for adiscussion of ITC, comparing it with research in design methodology, constructionmanagement and facilities management. The latter part of the paper focuses on thequestion of information management and transfer, the central issue of "computer-integratedconstruction". For this purpose the basic model is further refined into a number of genericinformation handling activities such as creation of new information, information searchand retrieval, information distribution and person-to-person communication. Theviewpoint could be described as information logistics. This model is then combined with amore traditional building process model. The resulting two-dimensional matrix can be usedfor positioning different types of generic IT-tools or construction specific applications. Italso provides a framework for discussing ITC research directions.

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Full text: content.pdf (127,651 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1997 (browse)
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Brien M J O', Baig A

A semantically rich reference model for building design

Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry. Various models from the original RATAS relational database model through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers. This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.047518) class.man-software (0.016724) class.store (0.013661)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Caldas, Carlos H. and Soibelman, L.

A Combined Text Mining Method To Improve Document Management In Construction Projects

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Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Carter G, Smith S

IT tool for construction site safety management

Abstract: The UK construction industry kills some 80 employees per year. This corresponds to a fatal accident rate of roughly 4.4 per 100,000 employees. Furthermore, major injury and 3-day injury rates are approximately 400 and 900 per 100,000 employees, respectively. Figures for the rest of Europe are similar, if not worse. It has long been realised that the reduction of hazardous events is fundamental to good construction safety management because these events have the potential to cause accidents, which may result in injuries and fatalities. However, there have been examples within the industry where hazard identification and the subsequent assessment of risk have been carried out by people ill equipped to identify all the hazards, assess their risks and suggest appropriate responses. Our research aim is to develop a knowledge-based system to aid in site safety management. The system will consist of a centralised database containing the combined knowledge and experience of all personnel within the company. This database is accessed via a user interface, which takes the form of a dynamic data-driven website and consists of four main applications that focus on the main areas of site safety management. The first application concerns creating and maintaining a company risk log, which can be used to identify hazards, assess risk, establish adequate hazard responses and report risk reduction performance. The second application is intended to aid in the method statement preparation process. Hazard referencing to tasks within the methodology and assigning significance values to tasks based upon assessed risk are the main features of this application, which should improve the level of hazard identification and enhance safe systems of work on site. Our system relies heavily upon historical data to provide an objective and dynamic evaluation of risk, rather than current subjective and static estimations of risk using the traditional method of risk matrices. Thus the other two applications are concerned mainly with entering data from accident reports and site safety tours into the central database. The other function of these applications will be to perform detailed analysis of accident causes, which will help safety managers to better respond to hazards to prevent future accidents. We are currently at the stage of developing a prototype version of the system. Field trials will be conducted between February and May for validation of the prototype. Validation will take the form of analysing method statements and risk assessments before and after implementation if the system to determine its effect on improving hazard identification, the assessment of risk, hazard response and accident rates. Qualitative evaluation will also be carried out. Questionnaires to, and interviews with, safety managers will give an indication of the usefulness of the system from a management and operational perspective. Doing the same thing with site foremen and operatives will allow us to determine the effectiveness of the outputs of the system, i.e. method statements and risk assessments, in enhancing safe systems of work.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,139,352 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026762) class.social (0.018951) class.impact (0.007440)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


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