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A A Raheem, R R A Issa, S Olbina

Impacts of Different Window-Shading Assemblies on Energy, Thermal Comfort and Daylighting for a South-Facing, Mid-Rise Office Building in Florida

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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A Karatas, K El-Rayes

Maximizing Occupants Comfort in Affordable Housing Units

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Series: w78:2014 (browse)
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A. Ahmed, J. Ploennigs, Y. Gao & K. Menzel

Analyse building performance data for energy-efficient building operation

Abstract: Modern buildings will contain an increasing number of wireless sensors and meters to monitor the building performance. This data allows improved analysis of building performance to increase the energyefficiency along with user comfort. This paper presents two approaches to analyse building performance data. One solution uses data warehouse techniques to create sophisticated energy consumption aggregations. A second approach implements data mining techniques to estimate the thermal comfort of occupants with a reduced number of sensors. This paper interprets the knowledge gained using, as an example, University College Cork’s building of the Environmental Research Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Andrea Buda, Tuomas Kinnunen, Bhargav Dave and Kary Främling

Developing a Campus Wide Building Information System Based on Open Standards

Abstract: University campuses can significantly benefit from IoT technologies, especially from operational efficiencies and user experience perspective. Traditionally, such systems have been limited to lab based environments, where involvement of end-users is limited and the results may not reflect reality. To build IoT systems for real-world that are reliable and relevant, it is important to build experiments in real-world conditions and involve end-users. From technological perspective, there is a need for convergence of diverse fields ranging from Building Information Systems and Building Services to Building Automation Systems, IoT devices and finally the campus services that include academic and research activities.This paper outlines the efforts to develop a campus wide web based system called Otaniemi3D that provides information about energy usage, occupancy and user comfort by integrating Building Information Models and IoT devices through open messaging standards (O-MI and O-DF) and IFC models. The paper describes the design criteria and the system architecture and the workflow to generate the information needed to develop such a system.

Keywords: Internet of Things, BIM, Smartcampus, Open Standards

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0338

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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C Gouy-Pailler, H Najmeddine, A Mouraud, F Suard, C Spitz, A Jay, P Maréchal

DISTANCE AND SIMILARITY MEASURES FOR SENSORSSELECTION IN HEAVILY INSTRUMENTED BUILDINGS:APPLICATION TO THE INCAS PLATFORM

Abstract: Energy management in residential buildings is taking an increasing role in the construction workflows.It entails understanding thermal processes at stake in the buildings and quantifying energyconsumption, which meets inhabitants comfort requirements. Experimental platforms such as INCASaim at providing experts with a practical way to study such problems in real conditions. These heavilyequipped buildings yield huge amounts of real-time data (sampling rates, number and types of sensors)for which new automatic approaches could be useful to thermal experts. Generic similarity measuresfrom data-mining could therefore provide comprehensive analysis tools to thermal experts. This paper focuses on the ability of some distance and similarity measures to organize millions ofdata from homogeneous and heterogeneous sensors into coherent clusters. Simplifying datainterpretations to thermal experts in highly equipped buildings, this approach could also stand as abasis for studying smart grids of less equipped domestic houses studies. Two types of similarity measures are explored. The first one consists of a set of three distances,and accounts for differences in terms of amplitude scaling and shifting between pairs ofmeasurements. It relies on the comparison of homogeneous sensors by quantifying the relativeproximity of their amplitude in terms of mean value, variance and time shift. The second type ofsimilarity measure employs a pre-processing step transforming continuous signals into binary events.The resulting spike trains are then compared by quantifying the amount of unitary transformations(events moves or events deletions/additions) needed to align pairs of events sequences. These proximity measures are computed on real data from experimental buildings of the INCASplatform. It comprises three experimental buildings (with different construction types) dedicated totesting various approaches regarding systems, control and energy-saving policies. These geometricallyidentical buildings are equipped with hundreds of sensors measuring temperature, humidity,differential pressure, and others data at various positions of the structures with sampling rates of onemeasurement per minute. Simulation-based temperatures are integrated in the sensors set providing acomparison between real and simulated data. Results illustrate the contribution of the applied methods when dealing with large amounts ofmeasurements related to instrumented buildings behaviors. Actually results show that coherent clustersregarding distinct signal properties are automatically generated. These clusters can be used fordimensionality reduction (clusters of sensors could be summarized by a single virtual measurement),or relative comparisons between sensors or between real and simulated datasets.

Keywords: INCAS, low-energy consumption, sensor selection, multivariate data mining

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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E Sabbatini, G M Revela, A Sicilia, M Böhms

Integration of an Infrared-based monitoring system with an EIIP (Energy Information Integration Platform) for innovative efficient indoor environment control

Abstract: An innovative thermography based measurement system for real-time estimation of thermal behaviour of a room is already developed as part of the FP7 project IntUBE. The applied approach is based on indoor measurements by an infrared (IR) camera and image post-processing to derive mean surface temperatures, thermal comfort indices, air temperature, number of occupants with the relative heat gains generated and presence of other heat sources (e.g. computers). The purpose is to provide spatially distributed room energy information in order to obtain instantaneous feedback displayed for the users or eventually for automatic HVAC control. Lumped parameter model of the room receives data from IR camera to compute exchanged heat rate and air temperature. A low-cost IR sensor, commercially available as surveillance system with automatic movement control that can provide qualitative data output, has been upgraded with a new interface to achieve quantitative data. The paper describes the integration of energy information related to the developed monitoring device (e.g. PMV - Predictive Mean Vote, PPD - Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied, room air temperature as output, humidity value from external sensor as input) within the IntUBE Energy Information Integration Platform (EIIP). The key aspect of the platform is smartness or “semantics”: ICT applications will communicate via this integration platform on the basis of semantic building objects. Performance Information Model (PIM) server stores data regarding the actual monitored performances of a building (energy, temperature, humidity, PMV etc.). These operational data together with the actual weather data can be used e.g. to compare actual performances with simulated performances and can lead to corrective actions. The paper demonstrates that an advanced monitoring/control system (as the IR-based one) can benefit from retrieving data from the EIIP through SPARQL queries, thus activating new functionalities with interoperability guaranteed by the Platform semantics.

Keywords: Thermography, Thermal comfort, Integration Platform, Interoperability, Semantics

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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F Talbourdet, F Andrieux, B Vinot, Pierre Michel, M El Mankibi, J R Millet

Stochastic optimization based approach for efficient building design

Abstract: Facing the building related energetic and environmental issues, and heeding the thermal regulations standards, building designers have to think in a different way there design approach in order to make buildings more efficient. Therefore, designers need a method to get information on the potential of a building program and on the optimal solution to improve visual and thermal comfort, and to reduce energy requirements and construction cost. This paper describes a genetic algorithm based approach applied to building energy simulation tools in order to optimize building design, from the geometry to the energetic properties, while minimizing energy, discomforts and costs. According to designer goals, two approaches were studied:• The first way is to let designers choose the approach of optimization for the building geometry, from optimization of external and internal geometry to providing complete geometry.• The second way is to let designers adapt the scope of the optimization.In order to take various potential occupancies into account, several models of occupation has been integrated to the building numerical model. Models could be provided by designers according to their feedback.To finish, this approach is tested on a basic case to assess its performances and to find the points where it needs to be improved.

Keywords: Efficient Building design, Multicriteria optimization, Genetic Algorithms, Bioclimatic architecture

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Gokce Ozcelik, Burcin Becerik-Gerber, Ali Ghahramani and Yuchao Wang

Can Immersive Virtual Environments Be Used for Understanding Occupant-System Interactions Under Thermal Stimuli?

Abstract: OccupantsÕ interactions with building systems, as well as occupant-related factors considerably influence a buildingÕs energy consumption. However, understanding occupant-system interactions related to thermal changes in built environments could be cumbersome due to the resources needed to create these environments or the resources needed for conducting controlled experiments in existing Physical Environments (PEs). One avenue is to use Immersive Virtual Environments (IVEs) where occupantsÕ interactions with the built environment are measured in the context of thermal stimuli. However, for validating the adequacy of using IVEs for understanding occupant interactions with building systems and/or elements, it is imperative to first investigate if IVEs are proper representations of PEs. In this study, we benchmark IVEs to the PEs with regards to user perceptions relating to thermal stimuli. In a human subject experiment, we use surveys and subjective thermal votes both in the IVE and PE, where participants experience both hot and cold indoor thermal conditions. Perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction votes are analysed by using paired t-tests and ANOVA. The change parameters are defined for identifying the direction of perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction. Statistical inferences show that change in occupantsÕ perceived thermal comfort and satisfaction in IVE and PE are not significantly different, and direction of the change is positive in majority of the cases (i.e., 100% of the participants were comfortable in PE, almost 95% of the participants were comfortable in IVE, 79 % were satisfied in PE, 74% were satisfied in IVE at the end of the experiment).

Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environment; Virtual Reality; Physical Environment; Thermal Perception; Building Systems; Occupant-Building Systems Interactions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0022

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Ipek Gursel, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz

A computational framework for integration of performance information during the building lifecycle

Abstract: Optimal indoor environments in terms of thermal comfort and indoor air quality are essential to maintain healthy and productive spaces. To address the high occupant comfort and energy efficiency requirements, advanced HVAC systems that have narrow performance boundaries are used. It is crucial to achieve the satisfactory operational level for systems and buildings by the adoption of performance based verification strategies. Performance-based approach requires the continuous verification of the actual performance against objectives during the building lifecycle. Building commissioning, building energy management systems (BEMS) and operations and main-tenance are effective tools to verify optimum building performance and have the potential to embed performance as-sessment into the building lifecycle. However, transfer of performance information from one method or building phase to another is difficult. A considerable amount of valuable information is lost due to the lack of an integrated framework that bridges different islands of information. This becomes most problematic during the operational phase, where de-sign data and performance trends are the main basis for decision making for facilities management staff. To achieve a persistent performance evaluation across phases and stakeholders, a flexible and seamless communication infrastruc-ture across disciplines and processes is necessary. The software architecture for a continuous performance verification and communication environment for indoor cli-mate and ventilation systems is introduced. The purpose of the model is to provide a framework that integrates commis-sioning, BEMS monitoring and inspection/maintenance activities, to avoid erosion of domain information during hand-overs and over time. The model retains continual information of building and makes this information available during building operations and [re]commissioning. A formal relationship structure is proposed between performance indices to support traceability of design and operations decisions. The paper will be concluded with reflections into the future work, which includes implementation and proposed strategies for validation of the model by test cases.

Keywords: building lifecycle performance assessment, building commissioning, BEMS

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Jahnkassim P-S,Abakr Y,Ibrahim I-F

Integrating simulation and visualisation for energy efficiency in a large public mall in the tropics

Abstract: This paper reports on a case study that involved an integrated design process of a large commercial development. In particular, it utilized simulation and visualization to inform strategic design decisions that could reduce heat gain while admitting usable daylight. Additionally, the design intended to avoid extensive air conditioning energy of a large shopping mall in the tropical context of Malaysia. Simulation inputs were presented to a design team throughout the design process and on completion of the building, post occupancy studies were carried out to verify the results. At present, air conditioning is not used in large common public areas and hence, this case study represents a successful application of simulation and visualization tools of such context. The airflow and monitored temperature results verified the simulation output - however, the daylight measurement recorded higher distribution compared to the predicted performance. This may be due to the standard use of 10 k Cie overcast sky in simulation to represent the worst cloudy scenario in Malaysia. Regardless, the results will benefit future planners and developers of large shopping malls by recommending the integrated design process. This process introduces the usage of strategic passive design approach that can save a large amount of energy used in common areas.

Keywords: multivolume,atria,canopy,thermal comfort,bioclimatic,ventilation

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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