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A den Otter, H Jan Pels, I Iliescu

BIM VERSUS PLM: RISKS AND BENEFITS

Abstract: Applying Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a hot issue. The Building industry feels the urge to use it, but at the same time companies see huge risks, since the ownership and control of information becomes unclear when all building information is put together in one model. Also the cost and the benefits do not always land at the same place. To that account three Dutch firms operating in multi- disciplinary building & construction projects asked the authors to execute a research and design project how to solve this problem. As a result a framework for assessing risks was developed for setting up a successful BIM process. It seems the manufacturing industry is much ahead of the Building industry in using these concepts and technology, be it under the name of Product Lifecycle Management. However, comparing the approaches in the Building industry and manufacturing industry shows that, while construction is primarily interested in the risks, manufacturing is primarilyu focussed on the benefits. The paper tries to explain this difference and concludes with some suggestions to reduce risk and enhance the benefits of BIM for construction companies.

Keywords: Data collection, Product Lifecycle management, Building Information Modeling and Data storage.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Ahmed Ahmed, John Kawalek and Mohamad Kassem

A Conceptual Model for Investigating BIM Adoption by Organisations

Abstract: Studies investigating Building Information Modelling (BIM) adoption proliferated in recent years. Existing studies are characterised by both deficiencies in the adoption drivers and factors identified and an insufficient demarcation of key terms and concepts used. The suitability of using the results of these studies to investigate a conceptual model for BIM adoption is therefore impaired. This study presents (a) a holistic set of drivers and factors that influence BIM adoption by organisations, and (b) the theoretical fundamentals for the development of a conceptual model for BIM adoption by organisations. The set of drivers and factors for BIM adoption can be used by researchers and practitioners for different purposes (e.g., assessment, ranking, adoption strategies). The theoretical fundamentals of the proposed conceptual model combine the essential lenses from the pertinent theories (i.e., innovation diffusion theory, and institutional theory) and models (i.e., diffusion dynamic model: top-down diffusion dynamics including formal and informal mandates). The model can be used to empirically investigate the decisions to adopt BIM by organisations and understand the varying influence of different adoption drivers and factors.

Keywords: BIM, Systematic Literature Review, Conceptual Model, Adoption Drivers and Factors

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0103

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Ahmed V, Mahdjoubi L, Feng X, Leach M

The learning of CAD for construction: technical abilities or visual?

Abstract: The increasing demands of the construction industry for individuals with good IT skills add continuous pressures on higher education to improve their methods of teaching. CAD training, as an important part of IT training for construction students, is becoming an essential part of the curriculum in most built environment schools. However, general CAD training is mostly concerned with providing students with technical skills rather than the initial ability of spatial visualisation. Indeed, existing training methods of CAD applications, do not take into consideration students? learning styles, and the differences in their spatial visualisation abilities. Considering that CAD students need to perform various activities within CAD applications to develop an understanding of building concepts and components, their spatial visualisation abilities and their learning style, remain the main barriers. This paper identifies the learning strategies required to assist with the learning of 3D modelling and describes a new approach adopted to examine students' Special Visualisation Skills. The paper also describes innovative e-learning approaches developed to reinforce students' learning of 3D CAD, tracking their progress and highlighting qualitative measures of their effectiveness.

Keywords: 3D modelling, e-learning in construction, CAL, CAA

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Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Alain Zarli, Eric Pascual, Daniel Cheung

Information and Communication Technology for Intelligent and Integrated Controls in Buildings: Current Developments and Future Research

Abstract: A common and acknowledged vision today is the one that, in the future, buildings, along with their components, equipments, and their environment will communicate and be able to provide information on their status ubiquitously. This real-time available information will be interoperable via common protocols for holistic automation & control. The whole building will be supervised by intelligent systems, able to combine information from all connected devices, from the Internet or from energy service providers in order to efficiently control HVAC (heating & cooling), lighting, and hot water systems along with energy production, storage and consumption devices inside the building, taking into account the users' needs and wishes. In such a context, ICT is recognised as key for empowering people in the (built) universe in which they live, with smart e-metering and new smart e-devices – as well as becoming fully pervasive in the future optimization of energy in the built environment - where “Energy-efficient smart buildings” are to be buildings which contain systems that manage information for an optimal operation of building energy flows over the whole building lifecycle.In such a context, CSTB has developed an open framework for data collection and processing, to be installed in any built environment. It supports networked heterogeneous sensors and actuators (with appropriate communication protocols technology), allows assembling various “business” functions (with easy evolution and extension capability thanks to a concept of service composition and event-driven management between modules), can accommodate any hardware platform constraint (memory, computing power), and can be executed in any environments supporting a Java SE implementation. The framework is itself based on an OSGi platform. The notion of “sensor” is to be considered in a comprehensive way: physical sensor (analogic or logic), complex sub-system or meta-sensor (e.g. Agilent data acquisition system or alike), or even external services (e.g. getting weather data via the Internet). Fields of applications are energy-efficiency in the built environment, but also Ambient-Assisted Living (AAL), internal air quality assessment, collection of data related to inhabitants behaviours, etc..The REEB coordination action (European strategic research roadmap to ICT enabled Energy-Efficiency in Buildings and construction), as a European R&D technology roadmap initiative (achieved in the context of an EC-funded Coordinated Action - http://www.ict-reeb.eu) has identified ICT contributions to the energy efficiency of buildings mainly via improvement (and corresponding RTD) in integrated design (and indeed ICT tools for Energy-Efficient design and production management), integrated and intelligent control, user awareness and decision support to various stakeholders throughout the whole life of buildings, energy management and trading, and integration technologies. As far as the integrated / intelligent control field is concerned, REEB has fundamentally identified the following areas for future investigation:• automation & control: system concepts, intelligent HVAC, smart lighting, ICT for micro-generation & storage systems, predictive control;• monitoring: instrumentation: smart metering;• quality of service: improved diagnostics, secure communications;• wireless sensor networks: hardware, operating systems, network design.The paper will first introduce to expectations, requirements and potential future scenarios for ICT to support integrated and optimised control in future so-called smart buildings. It will then introduce to the current trend of developments at CSTB in this area, and will present the CSTBox as a tool federating and/or complementing functions (potentially relying on already installed systems) in the built environment. After a short presentation of the REEB project, the paper will follow up with exhibiting the outcome of the REEB project in terms of roadmapping RTD activities in this technological field, also providing with a first insight of their potential impact in the future.Acknowledgement: the authors wish to thank the European Commission (DG INFSO) for its financial support to the REEB co-ordinated action. Moreover, the authors are also grateful to the REEB Consortium partners, namely ARUP, ACCIONA, CEA, LABEIN, TUD, UCC & VTT.

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Intelligent and Integrated Control, REEB project, CSTBox framework, Data collection and storage

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Series: w78:2010 (browse)
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Alan Bridges

Computational support for early stage architectural design

Abstract: The concepts underlying scenario-based design are introduced. From the analysis of a number of struc-tured interviews with practicing designers, key design scenarios are identified. These scenarios are then generalised and outline guidelines developed for structuring early stage design.

Keywords: scenario, architectural design

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Full text: content.pdf (226,318 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Alarcon L F, Bastias A

Computer aided strategic planning

Abstract: Modelling concepts developed to analyse project strategic decisions have been extended and implemented in a computer system leading to a generalised methodology that allows modelling and evaluation of strategic decisions in almost any decision area. Some recent application areas of this modelling system are: strategic planning, evaluation of environmental policy impacts and evaluation of risks in owner contractor relationships . The system uses concepts of cross-impact analysis and probabilistic inference as the core of the analysis procedure. A modular model structure and a simplified knowledge acquisition procedure has been designed to avoid the excessive cognitive demands imposed to the users by the original cross-impact methodology. A simple questioning process is used to guide the discussion and elicit information in an ordered manner. The result is a powerful but easy to use computer modelling system where managers, or other potential users, are not exposed to the complexities of the mathematical model. The computer system is implemented in a Windows 95 platform and it provides a graphical interface to help the users in building a conceptual model for the decision problem. The model is a simplified structure of the variables and interactions that influence the decisions being analysed. Influences and interactions assessed by experts or decisions makers are stored in a knowledge base. The system provides powerful analysis capabilities, such as: sensitivity analysis, to identify the most important variables in the decision problem; scenario analysis, to test decision under different environmental conditions; prediction of selected performance outcomes; risk analysis, to identify the risk involved in different alternatives; comparative analysis of the effects of alternative actions on individual or combined performance measures; explanatory capabilities through the model causal structure; etc. The computer model can translate expertise collected from multiple experts into a prediction of significant outcomes for decision-making. The model allows management to test different combinations of options and predict expected performance impacts associated with the decisions under analysis. The use of this decision-support tool can provide valuable insights on alternative options for strategic decision-making

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Full text: content.pdf (360,296 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.068425) class.impact (0.056619) class.environment (0.054697)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Bjrk and Dr. Adina Jgbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Andrej Tibaut, Branko Kau?i?, Peter Podbreznik, Marjan Lep, Duan Zalar

Towards intelligent information system for public interurban road passenger transport management

Abstract: Public road transport forms a complex and dynamical domain that encompasses fields of traffic, business and politics. Management of the system poses a challenge for governmental entities which are responsible for coordi-nation, control and data gathering from private transport companies. A need for IT support is obvious. The paper systematically describes a distributed enterprise information system named AVRIS developed for the Direc-torate of the Republic of Slovenia for Roads. AVRIS adds new value to the management and coordination of the domain for public interurban bus transport. First a theoretical work flow model, consisting of processes, phases and states is defined. Built upon the model a multi-tiered IS architecture is developed which incorporates a number of advanced IT concepts, like application server, shared communication space, MVC, etc. The concepts are implemented using latest open source Java technologies. First real experiences with AVRIS are evaluated and presented in the paper.

Keywords: traffic engineering, public passenger transport management, traffic informatics, decision support, shared space, work flow, open source, Java

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Andrej Tibaut, Danijel Rebolj

TOWARDS METHODOLOGY FOR HARMONIZATION OF SEMANTICALLY DIFFERENT BIM's

Abstract: Research focus of the paper are heterogeneous information systems. Heterogeneity within a set of software applications can be attributed to the fact that their collaboration is hindered due to the conflicts in software architecture, communication protocols and/or data representation. General interconnectivity and emerging interoperability have caused the fall of mainframe-based systems, which in turn led to variety of information systems with local data representations, communication protocols and software architectures. Today these information systems need to collaborate in different engineering projects. Existing approaches, such as common framework, integration with standard scheme and data mediation, try to diminish the undesired effects within heterogeneous systems. The approaches are indeed successful because they eliminate all conflicts at design time. This way collaborating applications have to abandon their local data views. In this paper heterogeneity is regarded as a property of an information system while disharmony of an information system is defined as a state of the system. Further, structural, semantical and functional disharmony is defined as part of overall information systemss disharmony. As a consequence a new methodology called DRAGOn (Disharmony Resolving with Agents and Ontology) is proposed. The methodology aims to dynamically resolve structural and semantical disharmony by preserving applications local data views. Another novelty is the definition of conceptualization for structural and semantical disharmony (Disharmony ontology) and the use of software agents. Disharmony ontology is specified in OWL. The agents use the ontology for resolving of structural and semantical conflicts between applications at runtime. Agents communicate via shared communication space based on Java technology. The mediation is incremental, which means that agents are able to build their local ontologies. The ontologies are used as persistent meta-data repositories of concepts (structure and semantics) that are captured from applications during runtime.Extensive applicability of the DRAGOn methodology is expected in information system clusters with rich and complex data content, namely management of construction projects.

Keywords: Interoperability, building information model, quality of semantic and structure, semantic and structural difference, mediation, ontology

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Annie Guerriero, Gilles Halin, Sylvain Kubicki

INTEGRATING TRUST CONCEPTS IN A DASHBOARD INTENDED FOR THE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR

Abstract: The growing complexity of AEC projects leads to increase the importance of the building construction coordinators role. Moreover, the uncertainty linked to the environment of the building construction activity makes way for the notion of trust. The coordinator canmake use of a multiple tools/views for accomplishing his mission (e.g. planning, meeting report) but these views offer only a limited vision of the cooperation context. So we suggest analyzing data coming from these different views to obtain some trust indicators informing the coordinator about trust in the good progress of the building construction activity. Our approach distinguishes 4 aspects of the activity conditioning the global trust level: task progress, actors performance, documents required to perform the task, and building elements resulting from the task. Our proposal suggests introducing these trust indicators in a dashboard included in a multi-view interface allowing the coordinator identifying the tasks with a low level of trust and understanding the nature of the potential dysfunctions.

Keywords: Building construction, Coordination, Trust, IT-support, Dashboard, Model-Driven Engineering

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Annie Guerriero, Sylvain Kubicki, Gilles Halin

A model-based approach to develop a dashboard tool integrating trust concepts in AEC

Abstract: In the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, cooperation between actors is essential for project success. During the building construction activity, the organization of actors is both hierarchical, transver-sal and adhocratic. Moreover, the quality of cooperation is fundamentally influenced by the management of interde-pendences between tasks and between actors. In this context, the development of new assistance tools has to integrate these heterogeneous parameters relative to coordination and trust. We inspired about Model-Driven Engineering ap-proach to propose a models infrastructure integrating cooperation context modelling and views modelling. We develop on the basis of this infrastructure a dashboard dedicated to the building site coordinator. This tool currently in design stage provides indicators about the trust in the good progression of activity. Moreover, it would enable context under-standing by combining these indicators in a multi-views interface. Thus, the user could navigate in the context using multiple views like meeting report, planning, performance evaluation, or 3D mock-up, and obtain more information about a particular indicator.

Keywords: building construction, cooperation, coordination, trust, process modelling, dashboard, model-driven en-gineering

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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