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B Ksiê¿opolski & Z Kotulski

On scalable security model for sensor networks protocols

Abstract: Distributed sensor networks meet many different barriers that reduce their efficient applicability. One of them is requirement of assurance of the information security when it is transmitted, transformed, and stored in the electronic service. It is possible to provide an appropriate level of security applying the present-day information technology. However, the level of the protection of information applied to the whole network is often much higher than it is necessary to meet potential threats. Since the level of security strongly affects the performance of whole system, the excessive protection decreases the system's reliability and availability and, as a result, the global security of the construction. In this paper we present a model of scalable security for digital information transmission systems for the sensor network. In our model the basic element is the risk management procedure leading to an adequate protection level.

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Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Brandon Bortoluzzi, Daniel Sobieraj and J.J. McArthur

Automating the Creation of Facility and Energy Management Building Information Models

Abstract: Building Information Models (BIMs) are widely recognized as being valuable asset management tools, however the resources required to develop BIMs of existing buildings for Facilities Management (FM) purposes are a recognized barrier to entry. Significant developments have been made for generating geometrically complex models using scanning technologies, however the resultant models are often extremely large, requiring significant computational resources. This paper presents an automated process that uses 2D floorplans and elevation drawings to generate semantically-rich, BIMs with adequate geometry for energy simulation and integration of semantic data of specific value in day-to-day building operations management. The proposed approach is limited to the information available regarding the building and develops a model requiring minimal resources to both develop and maintain, while providing the flexibility for incorporating complex geometry when such information becomes available. A case study of a university campus is presented where 20 buildings were modelled using available 2D architectural CAD files (floorplans and elevations) to demonstrate and evaluate this approach. Process speed, accuracy, and resultant model quality are discussed, along with automation process limitations.

Keywords: Building Information Modelling, Automation, Case Study, Existing Buildings, Facility Management

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0144

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Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Carter G, Smith S

IT tool for construction site safety management

Abstract: The UK construction industry kills some 80 employees per year. This corresponds to a fatal accident rate of roughly 4.4 per 100,000 employees. Furthermore, major injury and 3-day injury rates are approximately 400 and 900 per 100,000 employees, respectively. Figures for the rest of Europe are similar, if not worse. It has long been realised that the reduction of hazardous events is fundamental to good construction safety management because these events have the potential to cause accidents, which may result in injuries and fatalities. However, there have been examples within the industry where hazard identification and the subsequent assessment of risk have been carried out by people ill equipped to identify all the hazards, assess their risks and suggest appropriate responses. Our research aim is to develop a knowledge-based system to aid in site safety management. The system will consist of a centralised database containing the combined knowledge and experience of all personnel within the company. This database is accessed via a user interface, which takes the form of a dynamic data-driven website and consists of four main applications that focus on the main areas of site safety management. The first application concerns creating and maintaining a company risk log, which can be used to identify hazards, assess risk, establish adequate hazard responses and report risk reduction performance. The second application is intended to aid in the method statement preparation process. Hazard referencing to tasks within the methodology and assigning significance values to tasks based upon assessed risk are the main features of this application, which should improve the level of hazard identification and enhance safe systems of work on site. Our system relies heavily upon historical data to provide an objective and dynamic evaluation of risk, rather than current subjective and static estimations of risk using the traditional method of risk matrices. Thus the other two applications are concerned mainly with entering data from accident reports and site safety tours into the central database. The other function of these applications will be to perform detailed analysis of accident causes, which will help safety managers to better respond to hazards to prevent future accidents. We are currently at the stage of developing a prototype version of the system. Field trials will be conducted between February and May for validation of the prototype. Validation will take the form of analysing method statements and risk assessments before and after implementation if the system to determine its effect on improving hazard identification, the assessment of risk, hazard response and accident rates. Qualitative evaluation will also be carried out. Questionnaires to, and interviews with, safety managers will give an indication of the usefulness of the system from a management and operational perspective. Doing the same thing with site foremen and operatives will allow us to determine the effectiveness of the outputs of the system, i.e. method statements and risk assessments, in enhancing safe systems of work.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,139,352 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026762) class.social (0.018951) class.impact (0.007440)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Delcambre B

Construction at the dawn of virtual images and multimedia

Abstract: Computerisation of the building sector is going ahead in leaps and bounds. It has already made an enormous difference to the day-today life of the building trades and improved the quality of structures. Huge progress in the presentation of data combined with a spectacular increase in computer power is opening up new possibilities. Multimedia, which corresponds far better to the building trades, will provide innovative, user-friendly applications. With the help of digital mock-ups, it will be possible to share data and pool viewpoints during the design stage of what can be described as the (( virtual project n. This tremendous evolution is already well underway.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Dieckmann A, Russell P, Stachelhaus T

'Healer, heal thyself!': information management in an architecture faculty

Abstract: The architect’s profession has always been that of an organizer; a coordinator. In an increasingly specialized society such as ours there is an even greater demand for professionals with a wide range of management abilities. Today’s architect will have to organize and coordinate the flow, the means and the systematic storage of information in a project. For an institution that ‘produces’ architects, it is, in the opinion of the authors, vital to not only teach modern / contemporary methods of organizing information but also to practice them. If architecture students are to comprehend the necessity of organizing skills & tools, they will have to encounter these from day one of their student life. In 2002, the Faculty of Architecture of Aachen University (RWTH) reached a decision to provide all members of the faculty, teachers and students alike, with a central service for the management of information. That service, called RWTH Information Technology Assistant (RiTA) is to be a set of web-based tools for organizing and managing the curriculum and all matters connected to that. The objective of RiTA is to increase efficiency and transparency in the administration of the faculty.

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Dupagne A, Mathus P

CABMaS (Computer Aided Building Management System) :Development of an integrated computerised platform for the management of information flows adapted to small and medium size building companies

Abstract: The basic objectives of the CABMaS research project (EC-DG XII, BRITE-EURAM II, CRAFT) had been the definition and the organisation of a computer platform aimed at managing the information flows needed by the various actors involved in the numerous stages of the building process, from the first contact with the client to the final compliance checking. Efforts have been made to produce a set of computerised tools easily manageable by non-IT specialised users, supporting these different processes and managing their associated information. The SME involved in the project has specialised in single-family house production. It was highly concerned with its quality management and already had the ISO 9000 certification. Wishing to further improve the quality of its production process, this SME asked an evaluation of its internal information flows management so that to develop an integrated, coherent computerised solution to improve it. Information flows management was considered by the research team as a significant source of knowledge that could be used by the company to improve its production process. The information had thus to be stored as a dynamic knowledge base, of successful (and unsuccessful) past experiences. This knowledge base consists in an actual management support system, integrating the information coming from the many sub-groups of the SME. Thanks to the structure of the information system, concrete experiences coming from the working-place can be exploited by company's commercials at the early stage of the process to guarantee coherence between the client needs and the enterprise capabilities. The computer platform in its state of development is presently used in the company every day practice.

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Full text: content.pdf (85,812 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.020841) class.deployment (0.008502) class.standards (0.007280)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Edward Jaselskis, William Rasdorf, Min Liu, Abdullah Alsharef, Frank Bowen, Majed Al-Ghandour and Larry Goode

Factors Affecting Bid Let Dates on Transportation Mega Projects

Abstract: North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) projects with construction costs of $50 million or more, known as mega projects, make up more than 50% of their total construction expenditures while representing less than 10% of the total project count. The estimated let dates and construction expenditures for these projects can vary significantly based on the type of project, work to be accomplished, and unpredicted events. This paper presents study results of various internal and external factors that relate to bid let date delays. The research methodology involved an extensive literature review and interviews with 23 NCDOT subject matter experts and construction contractors to better understand why mega project miss their planned let dates. Results revealed several factors that affect the let date including the owner's ability to acquire the right-of-way in a timely manner, the ability to coordinate with utilities and railroads, and delays in obtaining environmental permits. The study also collected and analysed data pertaining to strategic milestones and provides insights into the likelihood of meeting a particular let date.

Keywords: Transportation Mega Project, Contract Award, Let Day Delay

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0081

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Elger D, Russell P

Teaching knowledge management using distributed practice simulation

Abstract: The paper describes attempts by the authors to convey the importance of teamwork in architecture to students, be it in the process of architecture or the object itself. One of the main postulates of the work is that pedagogically, teamwork is better trained than taught. This is further compounded when the technological burden of distributed practice is introduced. Using Internet based communication technologies, the authors have sought to create a design studio environment that simulates real world situations where major planning partners are located in different cities and even different countries. Using experience gained over four years of networked studios, the authors were able to enrol five other universities for a semester-long experimental design studio. In essence, the students undertook to solve the design problem in teams spread over different universities. From 43 students, 14 teams (each with 3 members and one with 4 members) were assembled with no two students from the same university in the same team. Furthermore, each team was assigned a tutor from a fourth (or fifth) university. The different universities were far enough separated so as to preclude easy face to face meetings. Instead, the Internet was used as a communication medium. The entire range of available technologies was put to use. A central web site which logged user presence served as a virtual "place" where the students and tutors could meet to carry out informal discussions or arrange to transfer the discussions elsewhere (e.g. to a chat room or a videoconference). The web site platform also provided the entire group with supporting information such as personal diaries, common calendar functions, email lists and directories of student work. The students made their work available on the web throughout the semester in order to communicate with their tutor as well as with one another. Essential to the successful communication was an initial acquaintance session. This took the form of a 3-day workshop at the beginning of the semester. While this workshop ostensibly focussed on the design problem, it effectively served as a social engineering exercise in order to shake out compatibility among potential team members. After the workshop, the group met again 15 week later for a final review. Halfway through the semester, the individual teams travelled to their tutors for a mid-term review. Otherwise, all communication took place over the Internet (or through conventional telecommunication methods). The theme itself was certainly selfreferential: to design a centre for a virtual university. This cross-pollination of design method and design theme was an additional encumbrance for most students, but also provided a fertile bed for a wide range of design solutions. It is important to note that all of the teams were able to complete the assignment and postsemester questionnaires show an overwhelming positive reaction to the experimental studio, notwithstanding the high costs of travel and telephone. The paper discusses the feedback from the students and possible implications for future iterations of the concept.

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Full text: content.pdf (890,508 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-man (0.093221) class.social (0.038530) class.collaboration (0.035454)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Ellenberg I M

Education inrformation technology and the construction industry

Abstract: The acceptance of Information Technology (IT) has been growing within the construction industry for some time. This however has been largely restricted to the design professionals, including architects and engineers - it has not (except in a few exceptions) had the same impact on the construction site. Parr of this can be traced back to the training. Most architectural students are familiar with Computer Aided Drafting (GAD), whilst most engineering students are acquainted with the various related design packages. The same cannot always be said with respect to the building construction students. In the past building students have been taught computer programming related to some aspect of mathematics, engineering or simple scheduling. Today this is changing with the emphasis on the application of computers and is demonstrated by the growing use of spreadsheets adopted for specific reporting tasks through to the use of aophisticated scheduling packages, estimating packages and so forth. This extends to development of data bases for their own use and the use of service provided data. Most students today have access through their computer terminals at the University to world wide data banks, either at other university libraries through such services as AARNET (The Australian Academic Network) or other similar services. The access to CD Row information such as provided by Standards Australia has become one of the normal tools available to students. Facsimile and modem data exchange methods are parr of every day living. It can be expected that having graduated, the student will encourage their employer to provide similar services. Implementation of computer tendering as forecast for Singapore, will provide further encouragement for the employer to improve h i s commercial advantage. The growth of the wobfle telephone and facsimile is already widely accepted and IT is the logical next step.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,499,439 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.050024) class.synthesis (0.024963) class.environment (0.023501)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Futcher K, Thorpe T

Longitudinal-grounded case study of a project management information system: a reality check.

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology and findings of a longitudinal-grounded case study of the ambitious implementation of a PMIS within the public works organization of the HKG SAR. It has provided an opportunity for practical experimentation through the quantitative measurement of 'before' and 'after' effects arising from a change in management techniques. These were substantially dependent upon the introduction of a novel PMIS that conformed to the Cleland and King model for a portfolio-management-system that is added-value gained from a project-management data pipeline. The timing of the implementation and its attributes makes it an appropriate vehicle for experimentation to substantiate the Cleland and King proposition for project and portfolio management in multi-projects scenarios. A triangulated-search of the case files covering all aspects of the implementation of the PMIS provides a reality check of the construction business issues that drive systems implementation. It leads to the observation that empirical research into the day-to-day reality of IT innovation within the industry is essential if the gap between research and practice is to be narrowed. Pre and post implementation measurements of performance are used to assess the results achieved from this example of in-practice innovation. At least a three-fold improvement in spending performance was achieved when five years post implementation performance was compared to the five-year pre-implementation period.

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Full text: content.pdf (64,960 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.011734) class.impact (0.010804) class.commerce (0.010593)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


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