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M. J. Clayton & O. O. Ozener & C. A. Nome

BIM to CAFM: An Investigation of Adapting a Building Information Model to a Legacy Computer Aided Facility Management

Abstract: An investigation has been conducted to explore the steps required to move information from a Building Information Model (BIM) to a Computer Aided Facilities Management System (CAFM). The growing popularity of BIM draws heavily upon a perception that the technology can facilitate all major operations during the building lifecycle. Current deployment of BIM in the AEC/FM industry has significant impact on the acceleration of design and construction phases. Of equal importance, however, is whether BIM can pro-vide information for reuse in facility management and operations. This paper presents a research study in or-der to determine how to capture information about existing buildings in a BIM and reuse the information to support decisions about facility use. Our study includes findings from focus groups and in-depth interviews with facility managers and owners which produced well-reasoned arguments about deployment, challenges and obstacles of BIM utilization for the FM operations. Based on the findings, a BIM utilization framework was developed for FM. A link was established between BIM tools and an in-house CAFM system that con-sists of databases accessible through Web sites and incorporating pixel-oriented images and Web-enabled vector drawings. Four buildings supporting a college of architecture on a large university campus are incorpo-rated into the system. The investigation revealed that the BIM can provide much information for use in the CAFM system, but there remains a need for intermediate CAD products and additional tools.

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Full text: content.pdf (686,652 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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Marasini R, Dawood N

Simulation approach to optimise stockyard layout: a case study in precast concrete products industry

Abstract: The precast concrete products industry supplies 2,000 to 4,000 of different products to the construction industry. The demand for the products is seasonal. The industry builds up the stock in winter to meet the high demand in summer. As large numbers of products varying sizes and weights are involved, different handling and stacking requirements, the process of deciding appropriate locations to stock the products and track them while loading into lorries for dispatch becomes complex. Due to lack of appropriate methodology to manage stockyard layout, the industry experiences space congestion for both the storage and dispatch of products on the yard. During dispatch process, greater retrieval time is required, long queues of lorries (shipping vehicles) are formed, and desired level of service cannot be maintained. This paper describes an ongoing research that addresses the stockyard layout management problem through development of a simulation model, which investigates the effects of using different layout scenarios and handling equipment on the performance of stockyard. A prototype model is being developed using ARENA/SIMAN, a general-purpose simulation language. The model integrates production and forecast schedules, evaluates "what-if" scenarios with different layout, product allocation to storage locations and order picking policies. The performance of stockyard is evaluated through vehicle waiting time, vehicle queue lengths, stockyard space utilisation and the cost of storage and dispatch of products. This paper presents the simulation modelling concepts, input data analysis, first prototype model development and the strategies used to develop an integrated layout evaluation simulation model.

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Full text: content.pdf (348,189 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.strategies (0.007057) class.retrieve (0.004884) class.deployment (0.004883)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Martin J W, Haque M E

Distance learning in engineering and construction education: pros and cons

Abstract: Distance education has rapidly emerged as a new avenue for teaching and learning in the engineering and construction disciplines. Much has been written about the benefit and the downside of distance education. Many stakeholders in the construction and engineering fields remain sceptical about the validity of distance education. In spite of this scepticism the American Council of Education estimated that 85 percent of traditional colleges and universities offered, or soon would offer distance accessible classes. China alone produces more than 100,000 graduates, with more than half of China’s 92,000 engineering and technology graduates having attained their degrees through distance education. A universal model for distance education in engineering and construction would include answers to questions about the reliability and validity of the distance curriculum. The virtual engineering and construction classroom will become much more student centred. The traditional classroom will likely be replaced with a more intimate virtual environment. The student centred distance learning archetype will include dynamic demonstrations of theoretical engineering and construction models allowing students to manipulate, experiment, and translate theories into real-world applications. The distance education curriculum in engineering and construction will likely include the creative use of virtual technologies, theoretical adaptation, and the incorporation of comprehensive evaluation of student performance. Distance education in engineering and construction in the future must provide an element of comprehensive student evaluation to be universally valued and accepted.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,089,664 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2001 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.108034) class.deployment (0.038926) class.software development (0.006953)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by CSIR Building and Construction Technology. The assistance of the editors, Mr. Gustav Coetzee and Mr. Frances Boshoff, is gratefully appreciated.


Morabito G

Efficiency evaluation of the project level of CAD

Abstract: Importance of the availability of adeguate technical cadres far design The availability of adeguate tcchnical cadres is a fundamental elements for the definition of productivev process. Among these processes, those pertaining to design need higher levels of knowledge. The availability is connected to the training which becomes continually longer and more complex due to the continual rise in the minimum levels of learning, This is due to the development of learning as well as to the increase of the complexity of projects.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,044,502 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.deployment (0.047401) class.education (0.028282) class.economic (0.010247)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Myllymaki R

The cost estimating as the integrator between design and production

Abstract: Generally, the cost estimating is the first process where the design information meet the production information. It is very important that this integration succeeds; otherwise the same procedures are carried out several times while wasting resources. If the cost estimating processes and tools are well designed, the production planning, the procurement, the purchasing and the management tasks can both utilise and enrich the information produced on the design and the cost estimating phases. The focus of this paper is on the conceptual models of cost estimating tools and it is based on the research work and experiences collected during the last decade in Finland.

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Full text: content.pdf (66,532 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.025205) class.deployment (0.009553) class.strategies (0.005682)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Ng F F, Chau K W

Learning construction in virtual worlds

Abstract: Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) is a tool for creating and distributing virtual worlds on the Internet. It can be used to create a 3D virtual environment by computer-rendered simulation of an interactive scene with links to other virtual worlds or 2D information. It allows information to be organized spatially and related by location and proximity. This paper summarizes the concepts and potentials of VRML applications in the construction industry. The design and development of virtual worlds of building construction is discussed. User's interaction with the virtual worlds to explore and understand concepts in construction is illustrated.

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Full text: content.pdf (894,320 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.037217) class.deployment (0.029662) class.education (0.015656)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Obonyo E A, Anumba C J, Thorpe A

Specification and procurement of construction products: the case for an agent-based system

Abstract: This paper presents a justification for APRON (Agent-based Specification and Procurement of Construction Products). This is an ongoing research project aimed at developing an agent-based prototype system for the specification and procurement of construction products. The resulting prototype system will reduce the excessive amount of time spent acquiring information and gaining knowledge about various artifacts. This paper presents a case for deploying agents to assist specifiers and procurers of construction products. It introduces the subject of specification and procurement, highlighting the problems encountered in executing these two tasks. It also described what software agents are and distinguishes them from other closely related paradigms. The paper then presents a case for agents in the selected domain of specification and procurement of construction products. This is followed by a discussion on the features of APRON system. The paper concludes that the specification and procurements of construction products is an appropriate domain for the deployment of software agents.

Keywords: software agents, construction products, specification, procurement, Internet

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Full text: content.pdf (1,070,079 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: itaec:2004 (browse)
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Ozsariyildiz S, Tolman F

IT support for the very early design of buildings and civil engineering works

Abstract: Despite a general agreement about the importance of very early design decisions (various sources estimate that between 60% to 80% of the total project costs are determined during this stage), the very early design stage of building and civil engineering projects is not yet adequately supported by IT. The paper focusses on the problems that are causing the lack of IT support and reports on a possible solution based on the application of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Engineering. The paper will show some initial experience with the development and application of an Inception Modeller that implements ideas from the General AEC Reference Model (GARM) as proposed by Wim Gieling in 1988. The development takes place in co-operation with the Brite-Euram CONCUR-project. The system concentrates on the inception and very early design of technical buildings, i.e. buildings in which equipment plays a major role, like power plant buildings, hospitals, factories, etc. The basic idea is to support the choice and elaboration of Technical Solutions that fulfil the requirements of Functional Units. The knowledge base is structured according to a FU-TS decomposition, or Hamburger model, of the building. A knowledge acquisition tool based on the same Hamburger model is under development and will be explained in some detail in the final paper. The system is implemented in Java, using Clips as the knowledge engine and VRML for the visualization. Though it is probably still too early to draw any definitive conclusions, it looks as if the structure provided by the FU-TS decomposition is ideal for very early design support. It provides a means to capture and re-use knowledge of successful earlier designs, thus providing a mechanism still missing in the building and construction industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (115,004 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.bestPractise (0.007643) class.deployment (0.005435) class.education (0.005124)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Patel M B, McCarthy T J, Morris P W, Elhag T M

The role of it in capturing and managing knowledge for organisational learning on construction projects

Abstract: "Knowledge management is becoming increasingly recognised as a critical source of competitive advantage. The way organisations use knowledge and learn is increasingly being recognised as central to performance improvement. Construction is no exception. Many construction companies, and their clients, are recognising that the way they manage knowledge and learn, across the whole supply chain, can make an enormous difference to their performance and the efficiency of the construction process. This paper describes work forming part of the research project: ‘The Role of IT in Capturing and Managing Knowledge for Organisational Learning on Construction Projects’ – known now under the acronym KLICON: Knowledge and Learning In CONstruction. It sets the scene for the detailed research project reviewing the current state of the use if IT in knowledge management and organisational learning in the construction industry. The problem is in many ways particularly difficult and important in construction with its project base, and the large number of often relatively small projects with constantly changing members of the supply chain. Information Technology (IT) offers real opportunities for capturing knowledge and feeding it back into the project organisation. This is important if performance is really to improve. This research will examine how IT can better assist knowledge management and organisational learning in construction projects. The aim of the research is to investigate how Information Technology can facilitate organisational learning and knowledge management in the construction industry. This will be achieved by: · examining how knowledge is captured and managed by firms working on construction projects; · assessing what management and IT tools are used to facilitate this, and their effectiveness. Knowledge needs and the use of IT tools will be investigated within a selected domain. This will be Requirements Capture and Management. In KLICON, knowledge is being taken as the cognitive ability to generate insight based on information and data. Much of the current work in knowledge management focuses on the collection, classification, storage, accessing and communication of information. Important though this is, many organisations are increasingly recognising that the way information is used in order to facilitate continuous improvement is often of more immediate relevance. This, broadly, is the area of organisational learning. Organisational learning is the ability of the organisation to collect and use information so that members exploit it to learn and to improve performance. Learning is something that pervades every individual’s life in one form or another. Organisations may be capable of learning and such organisational learning may in turn impact upon various aspects of an organisation’s performance. The full paper will amplify the topics outlined above and illustrate them with examples from the construction organisations from the KLICON group. It will also include examples of the IT tools that are being used to capture the process functions and the related information requirements. The KLICON industrial partners, Ove Arup and Partners and Kvaerner Construction Ltd, are providing access to project teams for the in-depth research into requirements capture, knowledge transmission and organisational learning."

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Full text: content.pdf (332,916 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.education (0.060951) class.deployment (0.056432) class.environment (0.019154)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Patrik Jensen, Thomas Olofsson, Marcus Sandberg, Linus Malmgren

REDUCING COMPLEXITY OF CUSTOMIZED PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS THROUGH MODULARIZATION AND IT SUPPORT

Abstract: Many companies in Sweden using prefabricating strategies are currently meeting the ever increasing customer requirements with ad-hoc solutions that do not fit their production system. This is causing bottlenecks and lower profit margins as a consequence. One solution to the problem is to re-engineer their building systems according to modularization principles used in the manufacturing industries, which have adapted their production to be able to meet mass-customization.This paper describes the first part in study of modularization of building systems and if methods used in the manufacturing industry can be adapted to the building industry. The Swedish construction industries using prefabrication strategies are mainly project oriented, and needs to develop a more product oriented development process to benefit from the values that modularization can give. It is also obvious that it is impossible to introduce modularization methods used in manufacturing industries if design requirements are incomplete or changing from project to project. It is therefore essential that the product owner owns the whole process as well. Varying customers’ demands can to some extent be handled using modularization principles. However, we don’t believe that one solution fit’s all; therefore it is essential to target a specific segment of the market. The cost for the development of such modularized building system for the targeted segment of customer must be evaluated against the possible market share.

Keywords: Modularization, standardization, prefabricating, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Modular Function Deployment (MFD)

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Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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