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A Akanmu, C J. Anumba, J I. Messner

Mechanisms for Bi-directional Coordination between Virtual Design and the Physical Construction

Abstract: There is considerable growth in the use of virtual models in the construction industry. Many projects are now based on fairly sophisticated models but the use of these models is often limited to the design and tendering/bidding stage. Much more benefit can be derived from these models by extending their use to the construction, operation and maintenance phases of a facility’s lifecycle. A good way of achieving this will involve real-time bi-directional coordination between as-designed models and the physical construction. This will enable improvements in progress monitoring, construction process control, archiving as-built status and active control of building components and sub-assemblies. To maintain bi-directional coordination, computational resources are required to tightly integrate the virtual models and the physical construction. This is termed a Cyber-Physical systems approach. This paper focuses on describing the role of the Cyber-physical systems approach in enhancing bi-directional coordination. It highlights the mechanisms necessary to facilitate this and presents future deployment scenarios to illustrate the potential benefits to the construction industry.

Keywords: Bi-directional coordination, Building Information Models, Cyber-Physical Systems, Physical Construction

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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A. Gehre, P. Katranuschkov, R. J. Scherer

Managing virtual organization processes by semantic web ontologies

Abstract: Interoperability within Virtual Organisations (VOs) is still only weakly supported by IT frameworks. Whilst service level interoperability has made remarkable progress since the emergence and the rapid growth of SOA and Grid technology in the last years, business processes – which are the driving force of each VO – still suffer distinct conceptual gaps regarding their decomposition to technical transactions. There exists no detailed approach that would allow describing technical as well as business aspects in a coherent yet flexible and extensible way. This paper presents a newly developed semantic framework that targets this requirement. The conceptual background is followed by an introduction of the developed semantic web ontologies. Based on these definitions, dedicated Ontology Services as well as a set of related end-user applications facilitating semantic technology have been designed and implemented. They are presented in the second part of the paper. Reported are results from the EU project InteliGrid (IST-004664; 2004-2007).

Keywords: semantic web, ontologies, virtual organisation, process modelling, process management

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Amor R W, Hosiung J G

Multi-disciplinary views for intqrated and concurrent design

Abstract: The definition and implementation of user views is likely to be a major factor in the success of the ISO-STEP standard for computer-based representation of building components and their inter-connection. The development of a method for describing user views to a particular model is also likely to increase the usage of existing design tools. Currently, the arcane languages and the detailed knowledge required of the physics and terminology of the specific domains of many of these tools limit their use by designers. This paper addresses these issues by describing a system that can present information from a base computer model of a building to a given user. The language and level of detail of the system are directed at the needs and understanding of the user. This system allows multiple concurrent views to the base model, each view tailored to a particular discipline (eg, architect, structural engineer, services engineer, etc) and further tailored to meet the specific needs of the particular user in terms of understanding of the various disciplines and the level of information required. Used with a system that integrates various design tools through a computer based building model, this system will offer users information from a range of design tools at a level that they can comprehend.

Keywords: multi discipline views; product modelling; user interaction

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Appelqvist I, Keijer U

Building integrity a prototype for an it support system

Abstract: The industrialization of the building industry requires a profound understanding of the interactions between building parts, elements, spaces and systems. The industrialization also causes an increasing number of actors and suppliers to be involved in the building process. The problems concerning interactions are not limited to technical issues. The organization of the process, as well as responsibilities and liabilities of consultants, subcontractors and other actors of the process contribute to the growing implications that constitute the problem in its whole. Neglecting the interaction problems could affect what has been called the Building Integrity problem, BI. The first part of the research has been concentrated to formulate the problem and the key questions to be answered. A conceptual schema describing the BI problem tentatively has been outlined. The schema includes some interesting classifying attributes, e.g. the functions of a building, building parts, spaces, actors and the causes of building defects. A so called "defect model" has been chosen as a base for an IT Support System. The system aims at supporting certain actors to detect BI problems in the building process. A prototype system is currently developed and is described.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,206,229 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.029112) class.social (0.016984) class.represent (0.013808)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Bjork, Bo-Christer

Requirements and information structures for building product data models

Abstract: The term computer-integrated construction (CIC) is often used to describe a future type of construction process characterised by the extensive use of information technology. The key to successful CIC is the comprehensive integration of currently isolated computing applications in different phases of the construction process. Among the several types of data exchange standards needed to support such integration, the standards for structuring the information describing buildings (building product data models) are particularly important. No fully operational building product data models have as yet been formally standardised either on the national or international level, but the topic has been a subject of intensive research during the last few years. Building product data model proposals are usually defined using object-oriented information modelling techniques. The research which is presented in this summarising thesis was carried out primarily during the years 1988-92 at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The report begins with a brief introduction to the general background of research concerning CIC and building product data models. Fundamental concepts of object orientation and product modelling are explained in a separate chapter. In order to position the author's research results, the "state of the art" in this research field is briefly reviewed. The research results are presented against the background of a kernel-aspect model framework, in line with current thinking among several leading researchers in this field. The results can loosely be classified into three distinctive groups: a number of requirements which building product data models should fulfil; specific information structures in building product data models; and the integration of product models with other types of information used in the construction process. The specific information structures which were studied include the abstraction hierarchies used in building product data models, the type object mechanism and information structures needed for modelling spaces and enclosing objects. The report ends with a discussion of the results, comparing them with the proposals and results of other researchers. Some directions for further research are also outlined.

Keywords: Building Product model, computer-integrated construction

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Bjork, Bo-Christer; Nilsson, Anders; Lundgren, Berndt

The construction and facilities management process from an end users perspective - PROFACIL

Abstract: There is an increasing need for all actors involved in the construction- and facility management process to have a common framework for describing their work and creating a more efficient business process. In this paper we present a theoretical framework model from an end user perspective using IDEF0 methodology. The presented model is intended to be used to support more detailed construction- and facility management process modeling work being carried out in the multinational MoPo (Models for the Construction Process) project. It can also be used by any of the actors involved in the described process to detail their own processes.

Keywords: process model, IDEF0, construction, facilities management, MOPO

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Bloomfield D P

The role of case studies in the uptake of innovation in construction

Abstract: The UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions has initiated a Construction Best Practice programme. The primary objective is to improve management best practices. The technical performance of the industry also needs to be improved by identifying and promoting opportunities for industry to adopt new technical innovations and incorporate them into standard practices. Accordingly, a series of Technical Best Practice initiatives will be set up. One of these will cover Construction IT. It is expected that Case Study material will form an important element of the IT Best Practice programme. Concrete examples of use of technology in practice are likely to be more convincing than simple exhortations and theoretical reports. There are three major issues that need to be addressed. 1. A Case Study is, by its nature, very specific and it can be difficult for the reader to ascertain if there is sufficient commonality between the problem described and the situation that he/she faces in order to assess whether the solutions are applicable. 2. It is difficult to describe the problem and solutions in sufficient detail, yet in a way that encourages the material to be read, understood and used. Ideally a common format needs to be developed for describing the key facts. 3. A further aspect of importance is how to determine what applications are most in need of Case Studies. Limited resources are available and it is essential that these are targeted in such a way as to produce maximum returns for the industry as a whole. This paper describes a framework for addressing these three issues and will provide an update of the work of the UK Construction IT Technical Best Practice programme.

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Full text: content.pdf (48,114 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.environment (0.009079) class.social (0.005934) class.legal (0.002856)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Brien M J O', Baig A

A semantically rich reference model for building design

Abstract: Much effort has been expended by software developers attempting to build databases suitable for use by those working within the construction industry. Various models from the original RATAS relational database model through to sophisticated process models have been proposed, developed and evaluated. It is probably fair to say that these research efforts have only recently begun to effect the practices of professional construction engineers. This, in part, is due to the need for more sophisticated systems. This paper describes a database that is usable throughout the design and construction processes in the construction industry. The method uses the well-established idea of generic components that can be combined to create a large scale artefact. The novelty of the approach described herein allows the components to embody facts and rules that allow design knowledge to be modelled, captured and retrieved. The facts and rules encapsulate not only the interactions of the various products but also the processes involved in their use. In effect, the atomic primitive elements (both components and rules) can be combined to create complex elements which are semantically rich. The basic ideas and fundamental philosophy of this approach have been described elsewhere. This paper is devoted to describing the detailed implementation of this approach. The content is technical and thorough; it describes how a passive relational database management system, Oracle, has been used to create a new metadata structure for the creation, control and management of the components - both simple and complex. In effect, the relational database becomes active. Thus, the database reacts to design decisions by firing rules which then govern the interaction of the components. The paper presents a detailed description of the underlying architecture and the data model which has been developed. The paper is interesting not only to construction engineers but also to software designers in that it shows how existing database models can be extended by using their predefined data types to create new, and more complex, ones. While this is an old, well-established trick, this application to a real-world problem is a good test of its viability. Finally, a brief review puts this particular approach into the context of the other myriad attempts to create product and process reference models with an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses.

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Full text: content.pdf (90,426 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.047518) class.man-software (0.016724) class.store (0.013661)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


C Yon Cho, Y Hyun Park, G Lee

Identifiyng a Subset of BPMN for IDM Development

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose a subset of business process modeling notation (BPMN) to improve the information delivery manual (IDM) development process. The information delivery manual (IDM) (ISO/DIS 29481-1, 2008) currently recommends using BPMN for describing process maps (PM). The BPMN model is a generic graphical representation standard for specifying business processes targeted at a wide range of industry sectors. In its present form, it includes an unwieldy number of symbols and rules (currently over 160 notations) in order to cover a wide range of uses. Consequently, many process models use only a small number of these notations. This study collected and analyzed BPMN notations used in 54 processes in 14 existing PMs developed by various organizations. It was found that only 36 notations are used in IDM development. Based on these 36 notations, a subset of BPMN for IDM development is proposed.

Keywords: Information delivery manual, Korea construction process, Exchange requirement, Process map, BIM

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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C.E. Firat, D. Arditi, J.P. Hämäläinen & J. Kiiras

Extended model-based master scheduling for building projects using advanced line of balance

Abstract: This study addresses a two-step approach to model-based scheduling using the Advanced Line of Balance (ALoB) technique. In the first step, a master schedule is developed by using a product model, a resource and cost model, and public databases such as Ratu files. In the second step, this model-based master schedule is refined by a project manager who injects additional project specific information into it. The objective of this paper is a methodology that can be used to set up a model-based master schedule of a residential building project and then to refine this master schedule to satisfy the conditions in a particular project. The paper introduces building construction information modeling, advanced line of balance before describing the process and structure of model-based master schedule. After a discussion about extending a master schedule into a usable schedule, the findings of a case study are presented. It is concluded that a two-step methodology to create an extended master schedule is feasible.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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