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Ghanbari A, Froese T

Product modeling for construction management

Abstract: With the ever-increasing use of computer technologies for managing the information involved in business processes, information standardization has been identified as an important step towards improving the efficiency and effectiveness of these processes. Over the past two decades, many research and development projects have worked towards standardizing existing information in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. Many information models at different levels have been proposed and many prototypes have been developed. The major part of this effort has focused on modeling product information in AEC projects (as opposed to process, organizational, or other project information), and has concentrated on the designer's perspective. Our interest, however, is from the perspective of project managers. Although project management introduces a spectrum of process information that governs the act of constructing a project, the product information that describes the facility itself is still central. Yet this product information is not explicitly represented in existing project management software such as estimating and scheduling software. This paper outlines the dimensions of a research project aimed at product modeling for project management. It discusses some of the specific requirements of product models for the purpose of supporting project management functionality. The paper also describes a framework that has been devised for categorizing project management functions.

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Full text: content.pdf (153,603 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.represent (0.039791) class.commerce (0.013965) class.software development (0.013423)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Golabchi M

Development of an expert system to select the appropriate structural systems for large span structures

Abstract: The purpose of structural design is to create structures that respond to the requirements of function, aesthetics, serviceability, and constructability. In order to create, the designer must deal conceptually not only with a vast array of structural alternatives but also with the behaviour of these systems under varying load conditions. This paper introduces an interactive knowledge-based expert system for selection of appropriate structural systems for a particular project. The principles, methodology and implementation of the system are described. The system will be of particular use in the choice of the most effective structural solution for large span structures. The architectural demand and structural requirements of large span structures are explained. Knowledge-based expert systems, object-xiented developments and applications of expert systems in structural design are investigated. Related approaches and the most recent developed expert systems in this area are described and discussed. Finally. the approach adopted in the developed system and potential applications of the research are presented.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Gu, Ning

A Grammatical Approach to Autonomous Design in 3D Virtual Worlds Using Generative Design Agents

Abstract: 3D virtual worlds are networked environments designed using the place metaphor. 3D virtual worlds as Computer-aided Design (CAD) tools have shown promising potentials in areas such as design simulation, distant team works as well as interdisciplinary design collaboration. Recent developments in collaborative 3D virtual worlds focus on interactivity, flexibility and adaptability. Rather than creating virtual environments in which the 3D objects have intelligent behaviors, we take a different approach to develop an agent model that is associated with an individual designer in a 3D virtual world as a personal design agent. This paper presents Generative Design Agents (GDA), a kind of rational agents that dynamically and automatically generate, simulate and modify designs in 3D virtual worlds. The core of a GDA’s design component is a generative design grammar that is able to generate designs capturing a specific style in 3D virtual worlds. 3D virtual worlds augmented with GDAs provide a grammatical approach to developing autonomous generative design systems.

Keywords: Autonomous agents, 3D virtual worlds, design grammars, generative design

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Full text: content.pdf (694,329 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Haghighat F

Development of a procedure to evaluate the air leakage distribution from fan pressurization test - validation of three airflow models

Abstract: A number of airflow models have been developed to assist the designer in the design of energy efficient and healthy built environment. The models range from very simple empirical algorithms to calculate the global airflow rate to sophisticated computerized fluid-dynamic techniques solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The multi-zone approach falls between these two extreme cases. This approach assumes that the interior of the building is divided into regions of differing pressures interconnected by leakage paths. The advantage of multi-zone models, besides being able to simulate infiltration in larger buildings, is that they can be used to calculate mass flow interactions between the different zones inside buildings as well as inside and outside. This knowledge is needed for the design of heating/cooling and ventilation systems. An essential part of the development of any computer model is its validation, and the essential information needed for validation of airflow models is the distribution of air leakage distribution. This paper first describes a methodology to distribute global air leakage of whole house and whole garage among cracks and gaps on exterior walls and roof, and report the validation of three airflow models. From the comparisons it can be seen that there are good agreement between the predictions made by the models and measured data, as well as between three models. Therefore, it can be concluded that the methodology for air leakage distribution is correct, and the performances of COMIS, CONTAM and ESP-r for predicting airflow rates in single-family house are similar.

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Full text: content.pdf (198,669 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Heinisuo M, Karstila K, Pehrsson R

Product modelling and data exchange for constructional steelwork

Abstract: "The paper includes summaries of three national development projects, which all deal with product modelling and data exchange of structural steelwork. Two of the projects belong to Finnsteel technology program, one belongs to Vera technology program and both these programs are organized by TEKES of Finland. In all the three projects product data models applying ISO 10303-11 (EXPRESS) and product data exchange based on ISO 10303-21 have been used to define the models and to carry out the data exchange between organizations and between disciplines. The views to structural steelwork have been different in all the projects. The first project is called SteelBase, the second FST-EXPERT and the third FinnST-1. The largest project, SteelBase (three years, 28 companies) was focused to the data exchange between the steel designer and the steel product fabricator and to the education of the creator and the end user of the product data. The second project, FST-EXPERT was mainly focused to the product modelling and to the data exchange between geometrical modelling, structural analysis and cost estimation i.e data exchange within the organization but between disciplines. The third project, FinnST-1 is scoped to the structural steelwork data exchange between organizations generally. FinnST-1 project includes mapping between the CIMsteel Integration Standards from the CIMsteel Eureka project and the Industry Foundation Classes from the International Alliance for Interoperability. All the projects include much basic studies within the field of product modelling, some new findings and a lot of experience for the people involved with the projects. It is believed, that this experience is a good starting point to the new century with its challenges. The most essential results of the three projects are presented and summarized in the paper. Some results are e.g. (SteelBase) evaluation of possible STEP based product models for steel structures, basic data definitions needed for the data exchange between the designer and the fabricator, and the effect of that definition to the CIMsteel standard (from R1.1 to R2.0), mapping of product data following the needs of different organizations, and the importance of the education for these new things. In FST-EXPERT project it is shown, that the mapping with some ""intelligence"" between the geometrical model and the structural analysis (FEM) model can be a powerful tool if neutral data files are used for the data exchange. The power means here total independency of the CAD-program and the FEM-program and moreover in this case the cost estimation and strength check can be integrated to the design process applying neutral STEP-files. Finally, FinnST-1 project brings all the work done in the other projects to the use of all the organizations involved into the building project. Also, the possibilities to perform the mapping between STEP-models are new information."

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Full text: content.pdf (502,162 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.040417) class.software-software (0.035655) class.represent (0.025541)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


J-H Lee & Z-X Chou

Web-based Interactive Support for Combining Contextual and Procedural Design Knowledge

Abstract: Design study can take design as a process in the form of observing what designers do and how they tackle their tasks. The content of designer decisions and the organization of the process can be corresponded to contextual and procedural design knowledge respectively and they are typically inspected in design process. In this paper, we build a web-based interactive computational tool for designers to support their design process by integrating contextual and procedural design knowledge model. We use a scenario-based analysis to model the contextual design knowledge and the concept of Petri-nets to model a graphical workflow of procedural design process. To exemplify and illustrate our concepts, we focus on a sign design process, even though the system can be applied to a wide variety of design domains.

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Full text: content.pdf (4,168,014 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2005 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Technische Universität Dresden.


Johansson P, Edlund B

Case-based structural design -reusing design calculation documents

Abstract: If the information used by a designer during the design process could be captured, stored in a computer and reused as a natural part of the design process, many design problems could be solved more easily. Such information does not contain general information. It is instead created to be valid for a specific design situation. Design calculation documents is one example of documents containing such case-based information. How to use the information in earlier design calculation documents when solving new design problems in a rational way is the object of the study described here.

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Series: ecce:1997 (browse)
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Johansson P, Popova M

Case-based Design Using Weakly Structured Information

Abstract: Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of reusing past design solutions (Moore, 1993). Despite of this fact, there are no tools that rationally support reuse of such solutions. Case-based design (CBD) has been pointed out as a promising aid to help this situation. In order to be of practical use, however, a case-based design system has to be able to use the information that the designer creates during the design process. The design information that the designer creates is today mostly in the form of weakly structured information, e.g. text documents, calculation documents, and 2D-drawings. This paper proposes an approach that enables capturing and representation of weakly structured information for the purpose of case-based structural design. The representation proposed allows us to apply most of the objectoriented abstract principles also on weakly structured information. It is also shown how the conceptual framework, the dependency structure, and the design process can be captured, represented, and used in CBD. The approach is successfully implemented into a prototype for reuse of computerized design calculation documents.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, design, structural design, representation, object orientation, weakly structured information

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/2 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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K Davies, D McMeel, S Wilkinson

Mapping Roles in an Altered Landscape – The Impact of BIM on Designer-constructor Relationships

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Full text: content.pdf (285,373 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2013 (browse)
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Karroum M, Sauce G, Achard G

A KBS for the integration of acoustical aspects to building design activities

Abstract: In the submitted paper, a KBS for supporting the acoustical design of buildings is described. The main objective of this system is to allow the integration of the acoustical aspects in the building design activities, with a special emphasis on the necessity to consider the acoustical aspects during the early design stages, (i. e. Massing and Sketching), In fact, building design can be considered as a regulative, integrative process which can be divided into several stages. However, four design stages are commonly identified. Massing Design Stage, Sketching Design Stage, Preliminary Design Stage and Detailed Design Stage. In order to carry out the system, a set of tools should be proposed. These tools must allow the user (designer) to perform the different tasks related to acoustical design of a building in relation to i- the design stage and -ii the other areas which could be considered from an acoustical point of view as design constraints. In addition, they must enable use of the different strategies used in the design activities i. e. refinement prototypes and generation prototypes. Augmented Transition Networks are proposed to represent the acousstical design process, with this representation being based on the use of arcs and nodes. On finally the architecture of system is proposed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,387,335 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1994 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.021995) class.social (0.012062) class.software development (0.010619)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by VTT, Espoo, Finland.


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