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Agger K

Geneobjectclases in construction IT

Abstract: The Geno project intent to participate in the development of the next generation of construction IT systems. Goals for this research should be to: * loose the design process from the production of design documents * free the geometry from orthogonal projection * make possible a full, variable, complete detailing without loosing consistency * move the development of building component specific IT modeling * tools closer to the end user * improve the efficiency and capability of these modeling tools The Geno project works with three developer / user layers: * GenoObjectClasses, the basic standardized data and functional structure, developed by IT specialists in a close dialog with the IAI IFC development. * ProtoObjectClasses: IT tools for modeling spaces, construction elements and parts. Developed by IT specialized architects,engineers, on the bases of Genotypes. Made available to the end user through Internet by component vendors. * PhenoObjects: spaces, construction elements and parts, specified, dimensioned and placed and interrelated by the designer, to be analyzed and supply project information for all participants in the construction and management process. Modeling, analyzing and information seeking and presentation done by Prototypes. The idea of this structure is to improve dynamic and user influence in IT modeling tool development. The standardized class structure for this, the GenoObjectClasses has to support three concurrent models, namely the: * SpaceModel, an interrelated surface model, a non detailed division of the project space in functional spaces (living room, kitchen,bath etc.) and construction spaces (foundation, wall, roof, slap etc.). * ComponentModel, a successive partitioning, ore filling theSpaceModel with building elements, components (facing wall, inner wall, insulation, window, door, ceiling, roof construction, inventory, furniture etc.), interrelated and related to the SpaceModel. * EntityModel, a similar fill to the Componentmodel with buildingparts (brick, joint, plaster, fitting, gutter etc.) to make a complete consistent productmodel possible. The "three model structure" to be filled out successively, add flexibility to the designprocess. When calculations and visualizations is performed the detailed model is used, but in areas with no detailing the model on the lower detailing level is used. This means that the total model will be "complete", if only the SpaceModel has been modeled. The development of GenoObjectClases will build as close as possible on IFC, and seek to expand IFC where it is nessesary. Status for the Geno project is that implementation has been started with AutoCAD ObjectARX.

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Full text: content.pdf (79,484 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.026583) class.represent (0.015546) class.synthesis (0.015011)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Alvise Simondetti

Designer’s toolkit 2020: a vision for the practice

Abstract: Designer’s toolkit is rapidly changing and design practices need a shared vision of what the short, me-dium and long term might be. With this in mind we interviewed twenty-four thought leaders in the design community worldwide. Four big ideas emerged from the interviews: transferring technologies from other industries has provided great bene-fits, but it has also generated the need to transfer processes; changes in the way we build drives changes in the de-signer’s desktop, including the representations that designers use to communicate; greater gains are achieved by focus-sing on the interplay of specialised algorithms; “just on time” design data improves design. Four possible contexts for the designer’s toolkit are described: the proprietor aimed at increasing productivity, the open-source aimed at increasing IT driven creativity, either more or less engaged with fabrication. Finally, the paper concludes by proposing what designers ought to be doing today. Actions include educating specialist toolmakers, custodian and math modellers; integrating computer controlled machine workshops into designers’ project spaces; the automation of repetitive design tasks; supporting communities around software tools and store project data according to geospatial co-ordinates.

Keywords: Design community, technology transfer, process transfer, designer's desktop, representation, communication

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Full text: content.pdf (451,568 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Arlani A

Application of information technology in the building regulatory environment

Abstract: The Building Code and its associated regulations, standards, interpretations, rulings and explanatory support documents form a body ofmaterial which, like any law and its regulations, are complex and, attimes, esoteric. It is comprised of a series of concepts and their relationships, rules, exceptions to rules and examples. It essentially defines prescriptive states, conditions and actions for the builder/designer or identifies performance requirements for materials or systems.There is seldom rationale for the rules that could easily be understood and thus few answers to the question, "Why?". This makes building regulations difficult to develop, to use and to enforce. In this paper some applications of computers used in the Code Development process, as a user tool and as an instructional tool will be discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,153,113 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.171184) class.synthesis (0.033042) class.analysis (0.021869)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


Barlow R P G, Amirudin R

Structural steelwork planning and design evaluation - a knowledge based approach

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of design-for-manufacture and design-for-construction methodologies to the building industry through the use of electronic prototypes developed by using knowledge based engineering (KBE). A working group representing British Steel divisions and consulting engineers agreed key processes and rules affecting initial structural steelwork solutions. The pilot scheme now in progress will allow the structural designer to use concurrent engineering techniques to work with other members of the design team, to investigate the functionality of the design, agree design parameters across design disciplines and freeze the design at an earlier stage than was previously possible. The result should produce design solutions which are both functionally and financially viable.

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Full text: content.pdf (55,004 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1996 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.030568) class.impact (0.015619) class.environment (0.010120)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Ljubljana. The assistance of the editor, Prof. Ziga Turk, is gratefully appreciated.


Blackmore J M

Computer aided development of knowledge in the construction process

Abstract: Modern regulations control the performance of our built environment rather than the methods and materials of construction. The designer has freedom to fulfil specified objectives any way he chooses, but he must show that he is fulfilling the regulatory intention, and fulfilling it well enough. How does he convince the building surveyor that his building will provide an acceptable level of compliance? Where does he find the information to justify his choice of solutions to the regulatory problems? And where does the regulator find the information needed to determine whether or not a proposed solution is acceptable? The answers lie in the sea of regulatory information and research that is the source of all building reedation. Required levels of compliance are implicit in ixaditional, prescriptive regulations. Background research data, legal rulings, records of committee decisions, articles, advisory notes, commentaries, accreditation reports, cornon practice - all give an indication of the level of compliance that society and the regulators are willing to accept and help the designer and the regulator establish criteria of acceptance. This vast array of knowledge helps the regulator determine the intentions of existing regulations and write realistic rules for the performance of buildings. But where does the search fgr knowledge begin? Information technology can structure the search and help find a way through the jungle of data, macheteing obstructions to the introduction of innovative solutions. A structured, selective search can give the regulator access to all the data he needs to support his arguments, allowing the full realisation of the benefits of performance regulation. Linked to a powerful expert system that assists and checks his passage through the regulations, CSBO is creating an IT system to facilitate these benefits.

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Full text: content.pdf (2,214,097 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.legal (0.085813) class.analysis (0.024178) class.synthesis (0.023322)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Brochner J

Construction process improvements in market networks

Abstract: Most construction projects are carried out in market networks with several design and production firms involved. It is unlikely that the use of information technology (IT) will proceed at an even pace in firms. A vital task in coordinating the construction process is therefore to bridge technology gaps between firms. The analytical framework for this investigation is derived from the theory of transaction costs, with focus on how network participants perceive incentives for sharing and preserving project information. Issues such as information feedback from later to earlier stages of the process and professional liability for information provided are dealt with in this context. The main points are illustrated by results from recent and ongoing Swedish R&D projects within the field. Emphasis on IT use at the client/designer interface and at the construction site interface is expected to grow. Improved digital telecommunications for rapid transmission of graphics with attached databases are seen as a development with far-reaching consequences for efficiency in the construction process.

Keywords: construction process; networks; transaction costs; design feedback; Swedish construction

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Full text: content.pdf (668,490 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


C Kasprzak, C Dubler, E Gannon, E Nulton

ALIGNING BIM WITH FM: STREAMLINING THE PROCESS FOR FUTURE PROJECTS ON THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CAMPUSES

Abstract: A study performed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2004 found that owners account for approximately $10.6 billion of the $15.8 billion total inadequate interoperability costs of U.S. capital facility projects in 2002. Because of these inefficiency costs, it becomes vital that information produced during the design and construction phases of a project be transferred into operations with maximum leverage to the end users. However, very few owners have defined these informational needs or developed an integration strategy into existing maintenance management systems. To increase operational efficiency, an organization must first develop an understanding of their operating systems, as well as identify how Building Information Modeling (BIM) will add value to their daily tasks.The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has a unique opportunity to diversely implement BIM processes because not only does the University act as an owner, but also as designer and construction manager on the majority of projects. The struggle that PSU faces is one that is unique only to owners with a large, existing, multifaceted building inventory. This paper outlines the current initiative by the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the asset manager at PSU, to develop an information exchange framework between BIM and FM applications to be used internally. Specific topics to be ascertained are: the research steps taken to develop a strategic implementation plan for information exchange process between project stakeholders and the OPP; an overview and gap analysis of the existing operations processes currently implemented; and a summary of the collaboration effort between vendors, project stakeholders and the OPP to develop this information integration. As a result of this research, PSU has been able to define owner operational requirements for future projects and develop a flexible integration framework to support additional BIM tasks and information exchanges.

Keywords: BIM, Facility Management, Owner, Operations

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Full text: content.pdf (236,201 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Chen Y-W,Hsieh S-H

A BIM assisted rule based approach for checking of green building design

Abstract: Since the publication of green building standards from the last decade, the designer of green buildings have often encountered the challenges of limited time but considerable complexity in the process of evaluating their design according to the rules specified in the standards. Also, the design process is usually an iterative one, which includes rule-checking tasks that are tedious and repetitive. With the advancement of technologies in Building Information Modeling (BIM), artificial intelligence, and Virtual Reality (VR), this research investigates and develops a BIM-assisted Rule-based approach for automating checking of green building design. The developed approach utilizes as much information available in a building’s BIM model as possible to automate the design evaluation complied with green building standards. It also provides visual feedbacks through the BIM model to assist the designer in green building design. To evaluate and demonstrate this approach, an Application Programming Interface (API) tool has been developed in this research to extend the capability of BIM software for both automatic rule-checking of green building design and real-time visualization of feedbacks from the rule-checking. A rule base is used to manage the design rules specified in green building standards and facilitate the automation of rule checking. In addition, visualization of the rule-checking results (e.g. highlights of places in the design that do not satisfy the design requirements) is supported in a 3D VR environment of a building’s BIM model.

Keywords: Building Information Modeling,BIM,Rule Checking,Green Building Standards,Rule-based System,Application Programming Interface,Visualization

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Full text: content.pdf (1,516,897 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Colajanni B, Fornarelli A, Giretti A, Naticchia B, Pellitteri G

ASA, An interactive assistant to architectural designers

Abstract: In the management of information for the design case reasoning seems the best fit for simulating the real designer s behaviour. In order to construct a plausible interactive assistant to architectural designers three main problems are to be solved: the way of encoding and indexing technical knowledge in order to easily recover the best starting case; the way of giving semantics to sketches; the way of coming to terms with inconsistencies generated during the process. An interactive architectural assistant is proposed based on case reasoning, managing architectural information encoded in a memory of real instances of the architectural type of reference and technical information encoded according the SfB system. Its architecture is made of two main parts. The first includes case memory, case recovery engine, abstraction engine and the design board. It manages the general and specific case knowledge in its abstract and semantics given form. The second includes the tools to generate single objects composing the architectural organism both directly and in parametric form, constraint management and consistency checking. The representation of the state of the object is twofold as a drawing in the drafting board, as a symbolic representation in the design board in which all the attributes of the object are recorded together with their relationships. The graphics of the assistant is implemented in AutoCAD environment while the alphanumeric knowledge is implemented in Kappa. The general architecture of ASA and the single modules are described, followed by a simulation of a session of work.

Keywords: case reasoning; architectural assistant; knowledge engineering

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Full text: content.pdf (825,405 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster:
Class:
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Côté S,Barnard J,Snyder R,Gervais R

Offline spatial panoramic video augmentation for visual communication in the AEC industry

Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is a type of construction work that requires a very good understanding of the existing built environment. Accurate bidding and proper planning for such construction projects requires detailed information both from the 3D CAD model and of the existing building. The problem is both sources of information are heterogeneous: one is in the form of digital data (2D CAD drawings, 3D CAD models), while the other is the actual physical world. The CAD model and drawings deliver the designer’s construction intent, while the physical world provides integration context. A user must do significant mental efforts to merge the 2 types of data and form a mental image of the work that is actually required. In this paper, we present a technique that enables the visualization of augmented scenes, packaged in a visualization application that can be used on site or off site by construction bidders, planners and workers. The building environment is first captured by walking in the area holding a panoramic video camera. The panoramic video stream is then post-processed to align each of its frames with a 3D model of the building. A user can then use the viewer to navigate the pre-recorded photo-realistic scene at any location and orientation along the camera paths, and augment it with the 3D model, to reveal hidden structure represented in the model, or 3D elements showing future portions to be added. Our method was tested on a building for which a detailed 3D CAD model (BIM) was available. Results show that the system could enable a better communication between the designer and the builder by displaying the designed construction intent in its real context, and therefore could allow more accurate bidding and work planning, and generally, could facilitate better understanding of the work to be done.

Keywords: Augmented Reality,environment,panorama,CAD model,BIM,construction,renovation

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Full text: content.pdf (1,418,536 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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