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Alkass S, El-Moslmani K, AlHussein M

A computer model for selecting equipment for earthmoving operations using queuing theory

Abstract: This paper presents a computer model “FLSELECTOR” for equipment fleet selection for earthmoving operations. The methodology based on the queuing theory is incorporated in a computer module to account for the uncertainties in that are normally associated with the equipment selection process. FLSELECTOR is capable of assisting the users in making decisions required for earthmoving operations, such as determining the size and number of trucks and excavators, haul road lengths and surface conditions, etc…These decisions are based on the calculated output for all feasible fleets. An actual case study is presented in order to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the FLSELECTOR in comparison with the simulation method

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Series: w78:2003 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Anadol Z, Akin O

Determining the impact of CADrafting tools on the building delivery process

Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is intended to change the way design and construction are carried out. At a minimum, this implies savings realized in terms of time spent and improvement of the quality of designs produced. To test this idea, we hypothesized that computer aided drafting and design operations may be instrumental in reducing the number of change orders issued and help control cost overruns by improving the accuracy of construction documents. We compared change orders in projects designed in the conventional media against ones developed with computers. We found that there is evidence supporting our hypothesis. Furthermore, in the process of investigating this question, we found that computer applications to improve the management of existing building information (as-built drawings, building system related information, and the like) represent even more critical needs than those that can reduce change orders through more accurate design drawings.

Keywords: drawing accuracy; change orders; design errors; as-built drawings; scope changes

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Series: w78:1993 (browse)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Atul Khanzode, Martin Fischer, Dean Reed

Challenges and benefits of implementing virtual design and construction technologies for coordination of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems on a large healthcare project

Abstract: This case study presents the challenges that the project team faced and the benefits they realized in imple-menting virtual design and construction technologies to coordinate the Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems on a $95M healthcare project in Northern California, USA. These challenges include creating a work structure for the MEP coordination process, organizing the project team consisting of designers, engineers, contractors, and subcontractors, determining the handoff of information between the team members, creating guidelines for the most efficient use of virtual design and construction technologies, creating the process of conflict identification and resolu-tion between the MEP subcontractors, and aligning the contractual interests of the coordination team to meet the over-all project schedule. We also discuss the benefits that the project team achieved by using the virtual design and construction tools for the coordination of the MEP systems. These benefits include labor savings ranging from 20 to 30 % for all the subcontrac-tors, 100% pre-fabrication for the plumbing contractor, only one recorded injury throughout the installation of MEP systems over a 250,000 square feet project area, less than 0.2% rework for the whole project for the mechanical sub-contractor, zero conflicts in the field installation of the systems and only a handful of requests for information for the coordination of the MEP systems. The overall benefits to the owner include about 6 months’ savings on the schedule and about $9M in cost for the overall project.

Keywords: virtual design and construction, conflict identification, menoMMechan eal, Electricalpand Plu systemsmbing

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Series: w78:2007 (browse)
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Bügler M,Dori G,Borrmann A

Swap based process schedule optimization using discrete-event simulation

Abstract: Large construction projects usually involve many tasks, which are connected through dependencies and usage of common resources and materials. Determining the optimal order of task execution is in most of the cases impossible to do by hand. Therefore different methods for automatic optimization of large process schedules using a discrete-event simulation system were investigated. This paper introduces a new heuristic method for the resource constrained project scheduling problem, called swap-based optimization. Compared to creating an optimal schedule from scratch, the swap approach facilitates obtaining metrics about the performance of the result, before having worked through the entire construction process. Swaps are introduced into the simulation model by assigning priorities to the tasks. After running a simulation a list of possible swaps is created. Applying one of them and restarting the simulation will introduce a change into the sequence of the tasks within the schedule, generating a different schedule than the one before. Different tree search algorithms, traversing the space of possible swaps throughout a construction process, were analyzed. The suitability of the method is proven by an extensive case study.

Keywords: Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem,Project Schedule Optimization,Discrete-event Simulation,Task Swaps,Construction Site,Tree search

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Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Chan P

The use of web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation

Abstract: Most standard forms of building contracts provide for the use of arbitration as a means of dispute resolution, failing which, the parties have to settle their disputes in court. Each dispute is resolved by examining whether the party who makes a contractual claim is able to discharge his burden of proof in both the liability issue and the quantum issue. The scope of proof is usually prescribed by the building contract. Evidence of information, facts and opinions may be adduced in support of a claim. Most project information may be stored in a web-based information management system. In existence are also some IT applications which may assist in providing facts and opinions that may support a claim. 4D Modelling may be used to simulate critical paths for the evaluation of an extension of time claim. GPS may provide the tracking of the use of resources to help attribute the cost of their use to the basis of a claim. The latest technology of LADAR may assist by recording through time, the as-built status of the project at any one time thereby determining the real-time progress of work. The use of computer-generated evidence is provided for by legislation and case law. This paves the way to use web-based tools to support a contractual claim in arbitration or litigation by linking the whole system to a claims service that monitors the situations where a claim may be made and trigger off a warning so that the procedure of claim may be pursued by a party if he chooses to do so. The claims service should then extract the necessary data from the other services in the project web to build up a claim.

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Full text: content.pdf (163,938 bytes) (available to registered users only)

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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the University of Auckland. The assistance of the editor who provided the full texts and the structured metadata, Dr. Robert Amor, is gratefully appreciated.


Chao L C

Simulation of construction operation with direct inputs of physical factors

Abstract: The deterministic approach to estimating the production rate of a construction operation assumes constant midpoint physical attributes without addressing the effect of randomness of job conditions. On the other hand, most simulation models bypass physical factors and rely on secondorder inputs of probability distributions of task times, the judgements of which have been cited as difficult for users to make. This paper presents an alternative approach to production estimation, based on simulating directly the effects of changing job factors on task times, while addressing the probabilistic nature of construction. The neural network model is used as the computing mechanism for determining the cycle times of the equipment in given conditions and provides the basis for estimation. The obtained times are then fed directly into a discrete-event simulation model to simulate the process and establish the production capacity of the system as constrained by first-order factors. The approach is illustrated using a hypothetical excavating and hauling operation while the object-oriented programming technique is used to implement the computing procedure.

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Full text: content.pdf (72,259 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1999 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.027295) class.software development (0.021146) class.software-machine (0.005241)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editors, particularly Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


D. Ilter & A. Dikbas

A review of the artificial intelligence applications in construction dispute resolution

Abstract: It is generally acknowledged that construction disputes are inevitable, highly complicated and may become destructive in construction projects. Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications have been developed recently with the aim of facilitating dispute resolution processes in construction as AI have become more specialized. In this paper, contemporary AI applications in construction dispute resolution field are analyzed and categorized into three groups as settlement oriented systems, method selection oriented systems and dispute evaluation oriented systems, reviewing the tools used in each category so far. This analysis is expected to contribute to the further development of the subject, by providing a holistic perspective and determining the trends and neglected areas in the field.

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Series: w78:2009 (browse)
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E Tobin,H Yin, K Menzel

Analysis of Performance Data from HVAC Components for Prediction of Maintenance Requirements

Abstract: This paper describes a methodology which manages a building’s maintenance activities by focusing on the timing of maintenance activities. Its goal is to optimise the trade-off between cost, which is incurred through maintenance activities, and the components health, which varies as a result of maintenance frequency. Here existing data from a BMS is utilises and analysis is performed on this data, with the objective of scheduling maintenance for a component, based on the measured performance of that component. This paper will investigate which data analysis technique provides the most certainty when determining the expected performance level. The major outcome of this paper is to present the certainty levels for each data analysis technique and illustrate how the analysis can be used for predicting maintenance requirements. Also this paper will have presented a methodology for managing maintenance activities and an implementation of these results using a Decision Support Framework for maintenance management. This research is performed as part of a nationally funded project ‘Information Technology for Optimised Building Operation’ (ITOBO).

Keywords: Energy-efficient buildings, Maintenance Management, Performance Based Maintenance, Performance Data Analysis, ITOBO.

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Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Eastman C, Augenbroe F

Product modeling strategies for today and the future

Abstract: Today, there is a growing set of technologies being developed for information exchange in the construction industry. These range from Aspect Models in specific product areas to large scale integrated product models, to new languages such as EXPRESS-X and EXPRESS-2. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and review these various efforts, from several different perspectives: * in terms of what can be used now or in the near future in a production form; * in terms of the significant technical issues and limitations that may require generation changes in exchange technologies; * in terms of external business practices (reflecting case studies), practical benchmarks and adoption criteria, political and other externalities that are affecting these efforts. The survey will review the following issues: * current capabilities of ISO-STEP Part definitions to support information exchange in the building industry; * current efforts by IAI, BCCM in STEP, and other parallel activities and their potential contribution and pitfalls (problems to be overcome); * different current research efforts and the problems and solutions they identify, including COMBINE, EDM-2, VEGA, work at CIFE at Stanford University. Hitherto underdeveloped model aspects, such as capturing the semantics of the client's brief, or capturing design evolution (program, decisions and rationale), modeling performance assessments, and others such as relevant standards, construction site handling, etceteras will be reviewed and priorities assessed. Over the last ten years, the set of requirements that a building product model must meet in order to be accepted in practice as a significant 'productivity enhancement has incrementally expanded. That is, as various research goals have been set, then met, the true extent of the challenge for realizing production-based building product modeling has grown. We will review this expanding set of requirements and attempt to scope their final range. These requirements include, among other aspects: * 'semantic coverage', * level of interoperability across applications, * level of embedded project management control, and * maintained linkages to parallel 'unstructured' information flows, e.g. managed by Engineering Data Management and Document Management software. It will be argued that a viable growth scenario regarding the semantic coverage of building models is likely to be a determining factor in the way that CAD vendors will embrace these as the basis for developing the next generation of architectural CAD software. Priorities of development will be identified and compared with perceived market pulls. The perspective taken will emphasize the US point of view. However, we will endeavor to also weight significantly the European situation and efforts. The result of these perspectives will be to identify 2-3 scenarios of future evolution in the area of building product modeling, with an assessment of their likelihood of coming to be, and the critical issues needed to accomplish them.

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Full text: content.pdf (86,802 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.store (0.031024) class.roadmaps (0.018975) class.strategies (0.018828)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


Ekholm A, Fridqvist S

A prototype computer program for product design applied to the construction context

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the requirements for an information system for product design and present an information system in the form of a prototype computer program that tests these principles in the context of building design. Design is a product determination process, i.e. the properties of a possible product are determined during the process. Design can be categorised as routine or innovative. In routine design the product is well known and the determination process includes selecting a prototype solution and determining its variable attributes. Innovative design is necessary when no such prototype solution can be applied, and new kinds of things and new uses for known things have to be created. Innovative design is a search process characterised by adding and removing attributes from the product model. In an information system for routine design the product model can be an instance of a specific product type, whereas in innovative design the product model must be an instance of a much more generic thing. In the latter case, the classification of the product model is determined successively during the design process. Information systems can be characterised as open or closed concerning classification of model objects, and concerning definition of classes in the conceptual schema. An information system for routine design can be closed in both respects, while an information system for innovative design must be open in these respects, so that the designer can define new attributes and classes and reclassify model objects. Building design, especially during early stages, is an example of innovative design. In the paper we describe a prototype program for product design, with examples of its use in the construction context. The prototype supports the above-mentioned dual openness by implementing a data model where the product model may freely be given attributes and be classified on the basis of these attributes.

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Full text: content.pdf (81,934 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.software development (0.034925) class.represent (0.028448) class.synthesis (0.018176)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


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