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Farid Fouchal, Vanda Dimitriou, Tarek M Hassan, Steven Firth, Argyris Oraiopoulos, Jonathan Masior and Sven Schimpf

Decision Support Tool for Energy Efficient Building Retrofit Actions

Abstract: This paper shows a process of developing a decision support tool to automatically generate building retrofit alternatives and rank them using energy performance analysis, user requirements, relevant benchmarks and regulations. Refinement of the retrofit scenarios follows a set of steps from creation of a Building Information Model of a base-case representing the status of the building at the time of the analysis, then creation of combinations for the possible retrofit scenarios. TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) based multi criteria approach is adopted as it relies on identified best alternatives using selected criteria. Ranking of alternatives follows their relative closeness to the identified ideal alternative. Best options are graphically presented.

Keywords: MCDM, Building Retrofit, BIM, Decision Support, Energy Performance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0343

Full text: content.pdf (1,201,274 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Franklyn Chukwunonso

TECHNOLOGY IN THE INFORMATION AGE: ITS IMPACT ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Abstract: The 21st century is on the doorstep, and the Information Revolution is firmly knocking at the door. In the high-technology revolution of the 1990s, computers, television, the Internet, and allied information technologies (IT) are changing our lives, just as steam power, electricity, and the internal combustion engine transformed our lives in the past. Today, the emphasis is on information gathering, processing and distribution. It is expected that the 21st century will be dominated by IT and allied technologies, as Spyros Makidakis predicted.

Keywords: Technology, Information Age, Impact, Developing Countries

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Full text: www.franklynonso.net (available to registered users only)

Series: other (browse)
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Froese T, Grobler F

Developing data standards for construction--An IAI perspective

Abstract: This paper will discuss the potential role of information technologies (IT) in general and data standards in particular for improving work within the construction industry. As an example, it will focus on the work of the Project Management Domain Group of the North American Chapter of the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI/NA). The paper will have two main parts. The first part will focus on describing a vision for how IT can improve the construction industry. The role of data standards within this overall vision will be discussed. The paper will look briefly at the "tangle" of emerging standards, and will examine the role of data standards relative to research effort, relative to software development, and relative to end users. Having positioned data standards within the overall outlook for IT in the construction industry, the second main part of the paper will focus on one particular data standards effort as an example, that of the Project Management Domain Group of the IAI/NA. The work of this group will be presented. First, the paper will describe the development methodology followed by the group. Second, the paper will give an overview of the specific data standards projects underway within the Project Management group. Both authors are directly involved in the activities of the IAI/NA (one is the group chair) as well as being active researchers in the area of IT for the construction industry.

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Full text: content.pdf (68,651 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1998 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.roadmaps (0.032358) class.communication (0.011190) class.synthesis (0.009961)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. The assistance of the editors, Prof. Bo-Christer Björk and Dr. Adina Jägbeck, is gratefully appreciated.


G Kapogiannis, F Khosrowshahi, J Underwood

Digital Services for Construction Small and Medium Enterprises: A Conceptual Business Model

Abstract: The rapid deployment of web technologies delivers information from diverse sources in the world of digital business in a unified way. Within the construction industry the demand for investments in the digital dimension has raised very fast indicating a trend towards on-line collaboration services usually offered through a web portal. The main purpose of this research is to examine how the use of a web portal enhances the mission of construction Small Medium Enterprises (SME) in the local, national and international economy. Therefore, features and services captured from existing construction web portals are listed quantitatively to indicate those that are important to support the enterprise needs of construction managers and directors. Additionally the common practical and essential features considered in the technical and contextual design of a web portal geared for the use within the domain of construction SMEs in order to promote enterprise continuity in digital business are briefly presented. Results indicate potential support of interaction and collaboration among partners in the construction industry due to direct information accessibility as well as an attractive web platform developed based upon their daily needs. Therefore the need to develop a web business model is suggested to enhance the role of construction SMEs with a focus on online collaboration (online services). This model aspires to provide potential practical on-line dissemination of knowledge within construction SMEs to help the world of construction managers and directors in order for them to be more efficient, effective and creative when developing new businesses, new ideas and new projects. This model is partitioned to accommodate for flexible and scalable technological infrastructures that offer the necessary web services addressed to construction SMEs.

Keywords: Construction SME, Web Portal Technologies, Web Services, Virtual Organisation, Communication

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Full text: content.pdf (330,893 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2011 (browse)
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Galjaard H C, Vos C J, Kunst S

EUROCADCRETE - an improved design exercise in reinforced concrete

Abstract: "The paper will present the results of 10 years of experience with a CAD/CAL reinforced concrete design exercise at Delft University of Technology. The exercise was developed in 1988 and 1989, implemented in 1989 for a test and in 1990 for regular use. Over 1200 students have used it since then. Students were asked to size and detail components of a simple reinforced concrete building, consisting out of columns, slabs and continuous beams at a workstation of the university CAD-Training Centre. The computer checked the results, gave feedback on these results, and let the students correct them until found satisfactory. Although the exercise was quite successful in the beginning, the success decreased in time because equipment and software got out-fashioned compared to other hard- and software students could use. Another drawback of the program was the very strict checking criteria used, which often tempted the students to solve the problem by ‘trial and error’. This didactic unwanted situation was also reason to improve the program. In 1999 the workstations have been removed and the exercise could not be continued any more. From several options available for the development of a new exercise, like upgrading the program or developing a complete new program, it was decided to adapt a commercially available program. In joint venture with a Software consultant, Matrix Software bv, a complete new exercise is being developed, tested and implemented. The exercise is based on the existing commercial software from this company for the design of concrete structures. Another reason to select this program for the development of the exercise is that it is already being used for structural analysis at the university. The program has several new features compared with the first one. It tries to implement some engineering judgement, by asking the student for answers based on rules of thumb, before computer-calculations are started. Furthermore the computer will not tell whether something is right or wrong according the code but it will show the result, leaving the judgement to the student. Another improvement will be that the exercise will contain some exercise in estimating and parameter-studies, asking for the effects of increase and decrease of sizes on the costs of a structure. The student can get help from the computer on different levels. Counting the amount and level of help being required and the time consumed may be used for a judgement. The program will use Eurocode 2 and will be made available for users who are interested all through Europe. The paper will not only describe the program, but will deal with the technical and educational results of the first implementation in spring 2000."

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Full text: content.pdf (311,657 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2000 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.analysis (0.024726) class.impact (0.022326) class.software development (0.019486)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by Icelandic Building Research Institute. The assistance of the editor, Mr. Gudni Gudnason, is gratefully appreciated


Garrat J

Developing an IT strategy for publishing construction research findings for CAD users.

Abstract: The Buildmg Research Establishment is developing a strategy for publishing research information to the Construction Industry using IT. In particular it is investigating the most appropriate methods through whch its information can be integrated into the operation of Computer Aided Design systems. The study wdl dso investigate how CAD can be integrated with Desktop Publishng to produce publications. The two techniques are different and the software and procedures are not readily compatible. This is because Desktop Publishing comes from a printing background and is designed for publishers; whilst CAD comes from a Construction Industry background and is designed for use by draughtspersons.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,152,444 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1993 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.041565) class.strategies (0.018921) class.man-software (0.005972)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the National University of Singapore. The assistance of the editors, particularly Prof. Martin Betts, is gratefully appreciated.


Ghodous P, Vandorpe D

An user interface for application protocol design

Abstract: Over the last two decades, there have been numerous efforts directed towards developing the integrated and computerized product models. Recent advances to develop a mechanism capable to describe product data throughout the life cycle of product have led to STEP. Designing a STEP application product data model (Application Protocol) is so vast, iterative and complex that it seems necessary to develop a tool assisting this design. In this paper, we describe an interface that allows the expert of an application to define his application’s product data model in STEP. The system helps the expert to generate automatically his standard product data model. The prototype of this tool, using the hypertexts, internet and world wide web, allows the user to easily access to the integrated resources and the other Application Protocols of STEP in order to specialize the integrated resources. The possibility of verification of the uniqueness of different user’s model and mapping the user’s definitions to STEP definitions is provided for the user. As a case study, the metallic construction application is discussed.

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Full text: content.pdf (1,380,415 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1995 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.man-software (0.068032) class.represent (0.037169) class.collaboration (0.023628)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by the Stanford University, USA. The support of the editors, particularly Prof. Fischer is gratefully appreciated.


Goh Bee Hua, Chu Yee Leen

Developing national standards for the classification of construction information in Singapore

Abstract: Despite lagging far behind countries which have started developing construction information classification systems over the last 30 to 50 years, Singapore is fast catching up in this area of development via the formation of the Construction Industry IT Standards Technical Committee (CITC) in 1998. The Government's intention is to create Singapore into a business and IT hub, and the National IT Standards Committee (NITSC) was formed in 1990 to spearhead the development of national IT standards in all sectors of the economy. To date, the CITC has initiated and established standards in the areas of CAD, cost and resources information, and specification. The paper discusses the developmental process for one published standard, the Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Classification of Construction Cost Information (SS CP 80: 1999), and one standard which is in preparation, the Proposed Singapore Standard Code of Practice for Classification of Construction Resources Information. The intention is to share the Singapore experience with countries which are embarking on a similar programme. The next challenge for CITC is to manage change and promote widespread adoption of these standards by the industry. Results from the questionnaire survey and interviews indicate a positive attitude towards standards development but less positive towards full adoption. Lack of incentives, little immediate benefits, cost to be incurred from re-classifying historical data and cross-disciplinary differences are some of the findings. The key pointers for intended standard developers are: make a conscious effort of involving industry players in the development of the standards in order to help bring down barriers to change; adopt a two-pronged approach so as to achieve a win-win-win result; identify leaders in the industry who can drive the developed standard/technology in order to convince other players to follow suit; and develop assistance schemes to help small firms embrace standardisation and IT.

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Full text: content.pdf (75,350 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2002 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.economic (0.030731) class.synthesis (0.018880) class.impact (0.014794)
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Permission to reproduce these documents have been graciously provided by the Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark. The assistnace of the editor, Prof. Kristian Agger, is gratefully aprecciated.


Goran Sibenik and Iva Kovacic

Current State of Data Exchange Between Architectural and Structural Analysis Models - A Critical Review

Abstract: Open format data exchange is currently the most applicable and promising way of exchanging building data between architectural and structural analysis BIM models. Industry foundation classes (IFC) building data model is the only open and neutral data format supported by all leading software products for these two disciplines in the construction industry. However, numerous interoperability issues will have to be overcome before seamless data exchange is achieved. buildingSMART International as the organisation responsible for the development of this data model is at the forefront of developing standards related to the data exchange and to the schema itself. Additionally, the organisation certifies software solutions that support the export and/or import of data with IFC schema. All these parameters are closely analysed as actors and processes that influence the data exchange. The case study on which this research is based, demonstrates how interoperability problems occur regularly across all the certified software tools. In order to pinpoint the origin of these data exchange problems, they are located within the described interoperability parameters. In that way all difficulties arising in the process of implementing open exchange format before reaching the end user are documented.

Keywords: Data Exchange, Industry Foundation Classes, Architectural BIM, Structural BIM

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24928/JC3-2017/0299

Full text: content.pdf (404,999 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: jc3:2017 (browse)
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Gowri K

Building codes and performance standards as knowledge-bases for design

Abstract: Code compliance checking is an integral part of the building design process. Many research attempts have been made to automate code compliance checking as a secondary task to developing a design solution.But it is possible to represent the code requirements in a knowledge base to assist in the design process. In the present study, a buildingenvelope design knowledge base has been developed to model the performance based design approach. The National Building Code of Canada's design requirements and an ASHRAE standard specifications for building envelope are incorporated in a knowledge base. A frame-based knowledge representation technique is used to implement the semantic relationships among the design context attributes. Once the performance attributes are established in the design context, then design altematives can be generated. A database of standard construction types for walls, roofs and glazings is developed to contain the material properties data required to generate design alternatives. This paper presents the knowledge acquisition and representation of building code and performance standards information, and also briefly describe the design process implemented in a prototype system.

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Full text: content.pdf (894,414 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:1992 (browse)
Cluster: papers of the same cluster (result of machine made clusters)
Class: class.synthesis (0.054246) class.represent (0.011585) class.bestPractise (0.010128)
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Permission to reproduce these papers has been graciously provided by Research Press of the National Research Council of Canada. The support of the editor, Dr. Dana Vanier, is gratefully appreciated.


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