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Björk B-C, Turk Z

A Survey on the Impact of the Internet on Scientific Publishing in Construction IT and Construction Management

Abstract: The World Wide Web provides the opportunity for a radically changed and much more efficient communication process for scientific results. A survey in the closely related domains of construction information technology and construction management was conducted in February 2000, aimed at measuring to what extent these opportunities are already changing the scientific information exchange and how researchers feel about the changes. The paper presents the results based on 236 replies to an extensive Web based questionnaire. 65% of the respondents stated their primary research interest as IT in A/E/C and 20% as construction management and economics. The questions dealt with how researchers find, access and read different sources; how much and what publications they read; how often and to which conferences they travel; how much they publish, and what are the criteria for where they eventually decide to publish. Some of the questions confronted traditional and electronic publishing with one final section dedicated to opinions about electronic publishing. According to the survey researchers already download half of the material that they read digitally from the Web. The most popular method for retrieving an interesting publication is downloading it for free from the author's or publisher's website. Researchers are not particularly willing to pay for electronic scientific publications. There is much support for a scenario of electronic journals available totally freely on the Web, where the costs could be covered by for instance professional societies or the publishing university. The shift that the Web is causing seems to be towards the "just in time" reading of literature. Also, frequent users of the Web rely less on scientific publications and tend to read fewer articles. If available with little effort, papers published in traditional journals are preferred; if not, the papers should be on the Web. In these circumstances, the role of paper-based journals published by established publishers is shifting from the core "information exchange" to the building of authors' prestige. The respondents feel they should build up their reputations by publishing in journals and relevant conferences, but then make their work freely available on the Web.

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2000/5 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2000 (browse)
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Cheng J,Deng Y,Du Q

Mapping between BIM models and 3d GIS city models of different levels of detail

Abstract: Modeling the built environment of a city digitally in three dimensions can support navigation, urban planning, disaster management, and energy consumption analysis. City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) was developed in recent years as a Geographic Information System (GIS) data standard to represent the geometry and geographical information of buildings in digital 3D city models. CityGML supports modeling on various Levels of Detail (LoDs) from simple box models to models with interior partitions. This paper presents the theoretical framework that we have developed for mapping between Building Information Modeling (BIM) models in the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format and CityGML models of different LoDs. The framework consists of two major parts – (1) transformation between BIM models and high level CityGML LoD4 models, and (2) harmonization among the four LoDs of CityGML. For the first part, a reference ontology was developed to transfer semantic information between BIM models in the IFC format and CityGML models. To reduce the file size of the generated CityGML models, a new geometric transformation algorithm was developed for the mapping from Swept Solid or Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations, which are commonly used in BIM models, to Boundary Representation (BRep) which is used in CityGML models. For the second part, schema mediation techniques are used to convert CityGML models from one LoD to another LoD. Based on the reference ontology, an application domain extension (ADE) called “Semantic City Model (SCM)” was developed for CityGML. The SCM ADE enriches CityGML models by providing more semantic information such as the linkage relationship between walls and building stories. This paper presents the developed mapping framework with an illustrative example of a residential building.

Keywords: 3D city models,Building Information Modeling (BIM),Geographic Information System (GIS),Industry Foundation Classes (IFC),Schema mapping

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Full text: content.pdf (807,385 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2013 (browse)
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Kene Meniru, Hugues Rivard, and Claude Bédard

Digitally Capturing Design Solutions

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Full text: content.pdf (703,819 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2006 (browse)
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Kjeld Svidt, Per Christiansson

REQUIREMENTS ON 3D BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS AND ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATION – EXPERIENCES FROM AN ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITION

Abstract: In 2007 the public clients in Denmark started implementing new requirements on information handling in their construction projects. In the full implementation they will demand that all construction data on public construction projects are digitally managed and interchanged. Tendering shall be effected electronically over the Internet. Design will be based on 3D building models, which are gradually specified to reach different levels of detail. The parties involved in a specific construction project must share and interchange data and documents about the construction project on a common document management system accessed through the Internet. When a construction project is finished, the parties will hand over relevant operation and maintenance data electronically to the client. Detailed requirements have been developed on behalf of the public clients within four main areas: 3D models, Digital Tendering, Project Webs and Digital Handover. Within each of these areas, initial requirements have been tested in specific construction projects. This paper describes experiences from the test of the suggested requirements on 3D models. The requirements were used in an architectural competition on modernizing a cluster of university buildings. Four selected architects were invited to the competition. The proposals from the architects should be prepared as a 3D model in IFC format supplemented with a number of 3D visualizations chosen by the individual architects.

Keywords: 3D building models, BIM, electronic communication, requirements, architectural competition

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Full text: content.pdf (285,444 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: w78:2008 (browse)
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Muramoto, Katsuhiko; Jemtrud, Michael; Kumar, Sonali; Balakrishnan, Bimal; and Wiley, Danielle

Emerging Techologies in a Tele-Collaborative Design Studio between Pennsylvania State University And Carleton University

Abstract: The research project investigates the use of a network-enabled platform (NEP) involving a combination of technologies that include: high bandwidth network infrastructure; high-performance visualization and computer cluster solutions; standard and high definition tele-presence/communication infrastructure; co-located immersive environments; and a range of modeling and imaging applications. The NEP enabled student teams in multiple locations to collaborate via on-demand, synchronous access to project data, visualization, modeling, simulation and multimodal interpersonal communication tools through a web service based dashboard interface that hid the logistic and technical complexities to the user. As a preliminary report on a proof-of-concept design studio conducted during the spring semester of 2007 between the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) at Carleton University in Ottawa and the Immersive Environment Laboratory (IEL) at Pennsylvania State University, the paper first describes the implementation of this networkcentric collaborative design platform. The report articulates the “staging” of the conditions of possibility for a dynamic interplay between technological mediation and the reality of making, then compares the use of high bandwidth technology with customized symmetrical toolsets in the tele-collaborative educational environment, versus commercial toolsets deployed over moderate bandwidth connections. In each setting, the collaborative environment is assessed according to issues encountered by students and design outcomes. The effectiveness of the digitally mediated collaborative studio is also gauged in terms of student reaction to the learning process via feedback surveys and questionnaires.

Keywords: design, collaboration, tele-presence, visualization, broadband

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Full text: content.pdf (197,864 bytes) (available to registered users only)

Series: convr:2007 (browse)
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Samuelson, O.

IT-Barometer 2000 - The Use of IT in the Nordic Construction Industry

Abstract: The IT Barometer 2000 was carried out in the autumn 2000 in Sweden, and in the spring 2001 in Denmark and Finland, as a follow up to the first survey, the IT Barometer 1998. This paper presents the most significant results from the Swedish survey and a few selected results from the comparison between the three countries. The Swedish survey was sent out to a statistically chosen selection from the whole country, divided into architects, engineers, contractors, property owners and manufacturer/trade. The survey produced knowledge about the use of computers, hard- and software, communications, and plans and strategies for the use of IT. 88 % of all employees work at workplaces with computers. The most common types of software are word processors, administration and e-mail. 54 % of employees have their own computer at the workplace. The use of CAD in general has increased and the use of model based CAD software has increased among architects. Property owners are those who use computers most widely in their core business, while contractors do this the least. The documents that are most often sent digitally are minutes of meetings and construction drawings. 83 % of all employees work at workplaces with access to the Internet and 45 % have access to the Internet from their own computer. The use of project webs and electronic trade in the industry has started but it is not widespread. Many companies are still increasing their investments in IT but the speed of increase is slowing down. The industry experiences that IT has increased productivity, mostly in general administration. Consultants experience a higher productivity rise than contractors. The greatest advantages with IT are stated as better financial control and faster access to information, while the greatest obstacles are costs, which are too high for investment and upgrading of systems. The motives and plans for IT investments are concentrated on well-tried techniques in the companies' support business. The comparison between Sweden, Denmark and Finland shows that Finland and Denmark have a greater use of model based CAD and that more employers have their own computer at the workplace. Companies in Sweden think they get better financial control with IT and also prioritise costing/cost control and accounting systems to a greater extent.

Keywords: survey, IT, construction industry, computers, CAD, communication, the Nordic countries

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Full text: http://www.itcon.org/2002/1 (available to registered users only)

Series: itcon:2002 (browse)
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